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REGIONAL AND CITY DEVELOPMENT

Planners must rely on practical wisdom
(Sandercock, 2003).


RADICAL PLANNING

  1. Emancipatory Planning

  2. Pluralistic Planning

  3. Contemporary Planning

Latar Belakang

- Paradigma pemikiran perencanaan cenderung berkembang tidak hanya memperhatikan teori dan pola pikir yang ada.

- Hal ini karena perkembangan dan perubahan permasalahan yang tinggi. Topik dan tema permasalahan pembangunan selalu berubah dari waktu ke waktu.

- Sehingga, teori dan pola yang ada sering tidak selaras dengan perubahan perkembangan permasalahan tersebut.

- Oleh karena itu, muncul pendekatan-pendekatan yang sangat kontekstual dan praktis terhadap permasalahan yang dihadapi.

- Paradigma perencanaan tersebut kemudian dikenal sebagai Radical Planning. Pengertian radikal disini berarti kembali keakar masalah, dengan lebih memperhatikan dasar atau akar masalah perencanaan itu sendiri.

- paradigma perencanaan ini bersifat emansipatory, pluralistik dan kontemporer.

Konsep Dasar Pemikiran Radikal

1. Konsep Radical

- Radical, as entire, are frequently employed as interchangeable in describing some marked alternation in the condition of things. There is, however, an obvious difference between them.

- A radical cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of the thing in question; and it is entire, in the sense that, by affecting the root, it affects in a appropriate degree the entire body nourished by the root; but it may not be entire in the sense of making a change complete in its nature, as well as in its extent.

- Hence, we speak of a radical change; a radical improvement; radical differences of opinion; while an entire change, an entire improvement, an entire difference of opinion, might indicate more than was actually intended. A certain change may be both radical and entire, in every sense.

2. Filosofi Pengertian Radikal

- A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon.

- Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.

- The words we at present make use of, and understand only by common agreement, assume a new air and life in the understanding, when you trace them to their radicals, where you find every word strongly stamped with nature; full of energy, meaning, character, painting, and poetry.

3. Pengertian Umum Radikal

- In sociology:

one who advocates thoroughgoing analysis or change “at the root”

- In politics:

- can refer to (an extremist) a supporter of a revolutionary social movement

- can refer to a counterpart to a conservative; see Radical Republican

- can refer to member of a Radical Party

- can refer to a progressive liberal, like e.g. the Radicals, a group of left-wing MPs in the 19th-century British Parliament

- In chemistry, either an atom or molecule with at least one unpaired electron, or a group of atoms, charged or uncharged, that act as a single entity in reaction. These two definitions are not functionally identical.

- In mathematics:

- the n-th radical or root of a number a, written as , which is a number whose n-th power is a (see radical (mathematics)).

- the Radical of an ideal is an important concept in abstract algebra.

Pengertian Pemikiran Radikal

1. Pemikiran Radikal adalah sebuah pemikiran yang bersifat fundamental terdahap akar permasalahan yang dihadapi, biasanya bertentangan dengan pemikiran tradisional atau konvensional karena dianggap membelenggu kebebasan untuk mengembangkan pemikiran secara kontekstual.

2. Karakteristik Radikal

- Radikal terfokus pada akar permasalahan yang dihadapi atau roots of the problems.

- Dalam kajian permasalahan, pemikiran radikal mengedepankan pemikiran yang amat kontekstual dengan akar permasalahan yang dihadapi, biasanya mengabaikan pemikiran-pemikiran terdahulu yang telah menjadi konvensi (kompromis) dan mentradisi. Pemikiran terdahulu dianggap oleh para pemikir radikal sebagai sesuatu yang membelenggu.

- Untuk berpikir radikal, dibutuhkan sifat kritis, kreativitas dan inovatif.

- Radikal sering dianggap sebagai lawan dari konservatif.

3. Radical Vs Conservative

A. RADICAL

- Berdasar pada hal-hal mendasar (root).

- Berdasar pada hal-hal terkini.

- Memecahkan permasalahan terfokus gejala yang ditangkap, dan mengolahnya secara kontekstual, mengedepankan kreativitas.

B. CONSERVATIVE

- Berdasar pada kompromis (conformist).

- Berdasar pada pemikiran konvensional/ tradisional.

- Memecahkan permasalahan secara hati-hati, dengan mempertimbangkan pemikiran tradisi yang selama ini berlangsung.

Posisi Radical Planning Dalam Sejarah Perkembangan Pemikiran Perencanaan

1. Posisi Radical Planning

- Menurut Friedmann, tradisi ‘planning in the public domain’ dapat di kelompokkan menjadi dua, yaitu:

1. Tradisi yang bersifat konservatif, yang menunjukkan pemikiran perencanaan yang bersifat konvensional, tradisional dan diakui luas (established).

2. Tradisi yang bersifat radical, yang menunjukkan pemikiran perencanaan yang bersifat fundamental, dan berfokus pada akar permasalahan (roots).

- Dalam konsep tradisi ‘planning in the public domain’, Friedmann mengelompokkan tradisi pemikiran perencanaan yang termasuk ke dalam radical planning, yaitu:

- Social Reform, yang menunjukkan tradisi perencanaan social guidance dalam pemikiran yang radical.

- Social Mobilization, yang menunjukkan tradisi perencanaan social transformation dalam pemikiran yang radical.

2. Review : Fungsi Perencanaan

- Planning attempts to link scientific and technical kenowledge to actions in the public domain.

Perencanaan berupaya menjembatani antara ilmu pengetahun dasar (teoritis) dengan ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan teknis (terapan-praktis) pada kegiatan-kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat umum.

- Planning attempts to link scientific and technical knowledge to processes of societal guidance.

Perencanaan berupaya menjembatani ilmu pengetahuan dasar (teoritis) dengan ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan teknis (terapan-praktis pada proses-proses societal guidance.

- Planning attempts to link scientific and technical knowledge to processes of social transformation.

Perencanaan berupaya menjembatani ilmu pengetahuan dasar (teoritis) dengan ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan teknis (terapan-praktis pada proses-proses social transformation.

- Societal Guidance

adalah pedoman yang disusun sebagai upaya untuk memberikan arahan pembangunan kemasyarakatan.

- Social Transformation

adalah proses transformasi pengetahuan, hak, kewajiban dan berbagai aspek yang menyangkut pembangunan kemasyarakatan kepada masyarakat, sehingga masyarakat dapat menggunakannya untuk membangun.

3. Posisi Radical Planning

- Berdasarkan diagram ‘pemetaan sejarah’ menurut Friedmann, dapat dilihat bahwa ‘Radical Planning’ berkembang dengan pengaruh social science yang kuat. Pengaruh social science yang kuat terutama dipengaruhi oleh pemikiran utopian, yang cenderung bersifat dinamis, kreatif dan inovatif.

- Sementara itu, pengaruh engineering science yang kuat menyebabkan kuatnya aliran pemikiran konservatif. Konservatif itu sendiri menunjukkan sifat-sifat perkembangan yang cenderung lambat atau statis, karena masih kuatnya pengaruh teori atau konsep yang telah ada. Engineering science yang cenderung berkembang lambat untuk meninggalkan konsep dan teori yang ada, memberikan pengaruh pada pemikiran yang bersifat konservatif.

KONSEP DASAR Radical Planning

1. Tantangan Kebutuhan Radical Planning

- Pertumbuhan jumlah masyarakat yang tinggi diikuti oleh sifat pluralistik yang tinggi pula.

- Pluralistik masyarakat yang tinggi diikuti oleh semakin kompleksnya permasalahan yang muncul di dalam masyarakat.

- Teori dan konsep terdahulu yang sudah diterima (accepted) dan disepakati (conformed) terasa tidak mampu memberikan penjelasan praktis terhadap permasalahan yang semakin kompleks.

- Pendekatan rasionalitis yang bersifat universal dan general terlalu umum untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang bersifat spesifik dan kontekstual.

- Pendekatan positivistik yang tergantung dari pengalaman praktis dan pembuktian empiris dapat membelenggu pendekatan yang harus diambil.

- Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan sebuah pendekatan perencanaan yang memperhatikan akar, dasar dan konteks dari setiap permasalahan yang dihadapi.

- Pendekatan tersebut adalah pendekatan Radical Planning, yang mengedepankan perhatian pada akar, dasar dan konteks dari obyek yang direncanakan.

2. Enam Prinsip Dasar Radical Planning (Sandercock, 2003)

  1. Greater reliance on practical wisdom.

  2. Planning is less document oriented and more people-centered, with more negotiated, political and focused plans.

  3. Planners need to access other ways of knowing, examining experiential, intuitive and contextual knowledges articulated through stories and other media.

  4. Greater community-based planning geared to empowerment and a movement away from top-down approaches.

  5. Acknowledge that there are multiple publics. The idea of the “Public interest” is no longer applicable as there are now multiple publics.

  6. Planning needs to be more participatory.

EMANCIPATORY PLANNING – Radical Planning-Emancipatory

- Perencanaan Radikal mengedepankan kesamaan setiap elemen didalam proses perencanaan.

- Setiap elemen dalam masyarakat memiliki akar atau dasarnya sendiri, sehingga memiliki kesamaan untuk dikedepankan, dengan pendekatan dan paradigmanya sendiri.

- Oleh karena itu, Radikal Planning mengepankan konsep-konsep:

- Mengedepankan kesamaan hak untuk semua pihak atau sektor yang terpinggirkan karena adanya pemikiran konvensional.

- Mengedepankan kesamaan posisi setiap pemikiran lokal, untuk dipertimbangkan dalam proses perencanaan.

Ciri Perencanaan Emansipatory

- Kesempatan diberikan sama pada setiap stakeholders didalam proses perencanaan.

- Meskipun memiliki kesempatan yang sama, hasil yang diperoleh untuk masing-masing stakeholders harus dipandang berbeda, karena masing-masing memiliki posisi dan peran yang berbeda-beda.

- Perencanaan harus membuka kesempatan terlibat yang sama, tetapi tetap menempatkan setiap stakeholders pada posisi, peran dan fungsinya masing-masing dalam sistem proses pembangunan.

Radical Planning PLURALIST PLANNING

1. Radical Planning-Pluralistic

- Perencanaan radikal mengedepankan setiap topik, kasus, dan tema permasalahan dalam posisi untuk mendapatkan perhatian yang sama dan seimbang.

- Mengingat permasalahan perencanaan dalam kehidupan masyarakat amat kompleks dan bermacam-macam, maka pendekatan perencanaan radikal cenderung pluralistik.

- Pendekatan perencanaan radikal tidak berupaya untuk mencari kesamaan dan kesepakatan dari adanya keanekaragaman, tetapi mempertahankan kenekaragaman dan perbedaan tersebut untuk meningkatkan sifat kesamaan pentingnya setiap akar permasalahan.

2. Ciri Perencanaan Pluralis
(Jordan, 1990)

- Kekuasaan dikelompok-kelompokan (fragmented) dan didesentralisasikan di dalam masyarakat.

- Pengembangan akses tidak sama terhadap setiap kelompok, disesuaikan dengan fungsi dan peran masing-masing.

- Penyebaran kekuasan kedalam masyarakat sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keinginan (desirable).

- Penyebaran kekuasaan disesuaikan dengan kebijakan sektoral untuk menyesuaikan kondisi dengan hasil yang diharapkan dari masing-masing sektor.

- Penerapan penyebaran pluralis kekuasaan politis melalui pemilihan umum dan perwakilan di lembaga-lembaga parlemen.

- Dunia pluralis yang ideal adalah terjadinya interaksi antar kepentingan yang menghasilkan kompetensi ide dan legitmasi untuk menngeluarkan hasil yang sesuai.

- Stakeholders didalam dunia perencanaan bersistem pluralis dibatasi oleh proses perencanaan dalam ketidakpastikan dan proses tawar menawar didalam interaksi kepentingan tersebut.

CONTEMPORARY PLANNING – Radical Planning-Contemporary

- Kecenderungan penekanan Radical Planning pada hal-hal yang bersifat mengakar dan mendasar dari permasalahan yang dihadapi, menyebabkan pendekatannya bersifat praktis dan kontekstual.

- Pendekatan praktis dan kontekstual seringkali bersifat kontemporer, tidak atau belum diakui secara tradisi sebagai kesepakatan yang luas. Dengan kata lain, belum diakui sebagai sebuah teori yang diakui secara rasionalistik secara meluas.

- Pendekatan Radical Planning yang menekankan yang bersifat mengakar dan kontekstual tersebut seringkali mengabaikan teori, bahkan Grand-Theory yang telah diterima secara meluas, tetapi lebih cenderung bersifat teori-praktis yang kontemporer, atau berkembang sesuai dengan permasalahan.

Kesimpulan

- Radical Planning memfokuskan akar, dasar atau konteks dari topik, tema atau obyek permasalahan, dan TIDAK pada kesepakatan teori atau konsep yang telah diakui secara luas.

- Pendekatan Radical Planning bersifat kontemporer, emansipatory dan pluralistik, mengingat sifatnya yang mendasar dan mengakar pada permasalahan.

Daftar Pustaka

- Faludi, Andreas. 1974. Planning Theory, Pergamon Press.

- Forester, J. (1999). The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Process. Cambridge: MIT Press.

- Friedmann, J. (1987). Planning In The Public Domain: From Knowledge To Action. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

- Mandelbaum, S., L. Mazza, dan R.W. Burchell (eds.) (1996). Explorations In Planning Theory. New Brunswick: CUPR Rutgers State University.

- Campbell, S. dan S.S. Fainstein (eds.) (1996). Reading In Planning Theory. Cambridge: Blackwell.

- Allmedinger, P. dan M. Tewdwr-Jones (eds.). Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory. London: Routledge.

- Sandercock, Leonie. 2003. “Planning in an Ethno-Culturally Diverse City: A Comment” Planning Theory and Practice.

A. MUATAN RENCANA TATA RUANG WILAYAH KOTA
1. Tujuan penataan ruang kota, kebijakan dan strategi pengembangan kota;
2. Rencana struktur ruang wilayah kota;
3. Rencana pola ruang wilayah kota yang meliputi kawasan lindung dan kawasan budi daya termasuk:

  • Rencana penyediaan dan pemanfaatan ruang terbuka hijau;
  • Rencana penyediaan dan pemanfaatan ruang terbuka nonhijau; dan
  • Rencana penyediaan dan pemanfaatan prasarana dan sarana jaringan pejalan kaki, angkutan umum, kegiatan sektor informal, dan ruang evakuasi bencana, yang dibutuhkan untuk menjalankan fungsi wilayah kota sebagai pusat pelayanan sosial ekonomi dan pusat pertumbuhan wilayah;

4. Penetapan kawasan strategis kota;
5. Arahan pemanfaatan ruang wilayah kota yang berisi indikasi program utama jangka menengah lima tahunan;
6. Ketentuan pengendalian pemanfaatan ruang wilayah kota yang berisi ketentuan umum peraturan zonasi, ketentuan perizinan, ketentuan insentif dan disinsentif, serta arahan sanksi.

B. TUJUAN, KEBIJAKAN DAN STRATEGI
Tujuan
Arahan perwujudan ruang wilayah kota yang diinginkan akhir masa perencaan (20 tahun mendatang) yang memberikan arahan pada lingkup sasaran yang ada dalam RTRW Kota serta semua programnya.

Kebijakan
Diwujudkan dengan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang menjanjikan suatu kondisi positif tujuan penataan ruang kota sebagai rumusan dari tindak lanjut pencapaian tujuan.

Strategi
Pernyataan yang menjelaskan langkah yang harus ditempuh untuk merealisasikan/ melaksanakan kebijakan-kebijakan yang ada dalam RTRW Kota, merupakan arahan dari pengembangan kota dimasa mendatang untuk mencapai suatu pengembangan yang diinginkan.

C. RENCANA STRUKTUR RUANG
Rencana struktur wilayah kota / kawasan perkotaan terdiri dari :
1). Arahan Pengembangan & Distribusi Penduduk, Pengelompokan materi yang diatur:
Distribusi penduduk berdasarkan proyeksi distribusi penduduk wilayah kota dibandingkan dengan daya dukung kawasan dalam pengembangan sistem struktur kota.

2). Rencana Sistem Pusat Pelayanan Perkotaan, Pengelompokan materi yang diatur:
Berdasarkan pada unsur-unsur pembentuk rona lingkungan alam perkotaan, lingkungan sosial perkotaan, dan lingkungan buatan perkotaan.

  • distribusi penduduk per unit permukiman perkotaan.
  • sebaran pusat-pusat pelayanan perkotaan, dilengkapi dengan bentuk keterkaitan antar pusat kegiatan

3). Rencana Sistem Jaringan Transportasi
a) Sistem jaringan Transportasi Darat

  • Jalan, terdiri dari: Jalan Umum, Jalan khusus dan Jalan Tol Sistem Jaringan, terdiri dari: Jaringan arteri sekunder, kolektor sekunder, sistem primer; Kelas jalan, terdiri dari : Jalan Bebas Hambatan, Jalan raya, jalan sedang, jalan kecil; – Angkutan kereta api, terdiri dari: Jaringan jalan kereta api; stasiun kereta api;depo/balai jasa.
  • Angkutan sungai dan penyeberangan, terdiri dari:Jaringan transportasi danau, penyebrangan, jembatan antar pulau, dan jaringan transportasi jembatan dan terowongan antar pulau.

b) Sistem jaringan Transportasi Laut

  • Pelabuhan laut utama meliputi pelabuhan laut utama primer, sekunder, tersier, pelabuhan pengumpan regional dan lokal.
  • Alur Pelayaran laut.

c) Sistem jaringan Transportasi Udara

  • Klasifikasi bandar udara , terdiri dari: bandar udara pusat penyebaran primer, sekunder, tersier, bandar udara bukan pusat penyebaran.
  • Kawasan Keselamatan Operasional Penerbangan.

4). Rencana Sistem Jaringan Utilitas, Pengelompokan materi yang diatur:

  • Sistem penyediaan Air bersih, terdiri dari : mata air; intake; jalan transmisi; instalasi produksi; bak penampung; pipa jaringan air bersih; jalur distribusi air bersih; bendungan; kanal besar; waduk penampungan air bersih.
  • Sistem penyediaan Air pembuangan, jaringan air limbah terdiri dari : saluran primer; saluran sekunder; bangunan pengolahan; waduk penampungan. Dan jaringan air pembuangan limbah rumah tangga dan limpasan air hujan terdiri dari : saluran primer; saluran sekunder; waduk penampungan.
  • Sistem prasarana Persampahan, terdiri dari : tempat pembuangan sementara; tempat pemrosesan akhir; bangunan pengolah sampah.
  • Sistem prasarana Sumber Daya Energi, untuk sistem energi listrik terdiri dari: bangunan pembangkit; gardu induk ekstra tinggi; gardu induk listrik; SUTET; SUTT; jaringan transmisi menengah. Untuk jaringan gas terdiri dari : instalasi distribusi gas; jaringan gas.
  • Sistem prasarana Telematika, terdiri dari : stasiun bumi; jaringan transmisi; kantor pos besar dan kecil; stasiun telepon otomat; rumah kabel.

D. RENCANA POLA RUANG
Rencana ini merupakan bentuk pemanfaatan ruang Wilayah Kota yang akan dituju hingga akhir tahun perencanaan yang menggambarkan ukuran, fungsi serta karakter kegiatan manusia dan atau kegiatan alam.
Materi yang diatur :
+ Kawasan Lindung, rencana disesuaikan dengan tipologi kota beserta intensitasnya:

  • Kawasan yang memberikan perlindungan terhadap kawasan bawahannya;
  • Kawasan perlindungan setempat;
  • Kawasan suaka alam dan cagar budaya;
  • Kawasan rawan bencana alam; dan
  • Kawasan lindung.

+ Kawasan Budidaya, rencana disesuaikan dengan muatan masing-masing aspek perkotaan dan sosial budaya lingkungan setempat. Rencana kawasan ini mencakup:

  • rencana penanganan lingkungan perkotaan;
  • arahan kepadatan bangunan;
  • arahan ketinggian bangunan.

E. RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU
Arahan umum penempatan RTH sesuai dengan fungsi dan pemanfaatanannya RTH harus disediakan minimal 30% dengan standar minimal 20% untuk publik dan 10% dipenuhi dari privat.

F. RUANG TERBUKA NON HIJAU

  • Dapat berupa ruang terbuka yang diperkeras maupun ruang terbuka biru (RTB) yang berupa permukaan sungai, danau, atau kolam-kolam retensi.
  • Rencana ruang terbuka non hijau memberikan arahan terhadap tipologi kebutuhan dan penyediaan ruang terbuka non hijau berdasarkan bentuk dan tipe penyediaan termasuk kriteria pemanfaatannya.

G. RENCANA KEGIATAN SEKTOR INFORMAL (PKL)

  • Arahan lokasi pengelolaan sektor informal seperti pedagang kaki lima, pasar loak, penjualan barang bekas.
  • Lokasi dan luas difokuskan pada integrasi dengan kegiatan sektor informal terhadap kawasan sekitarnya sehingga tidak menimbulkan gangguan terhadap kemacetan, kebersihan, kriminalitas, dll.
  • Kemungkinan dikelola secara khusus untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah ruang.

H. RUANG EVAKUASI BENCANA

  • Arahan ruang yang dipersiapkan sebagai tempat sementara evakuasi para korban bencana (keamanan terjamin, akses yang cukup tinggi dan terjangkau dari luar daerah.
  • Lokasi disesuaikan dengan jenis dan resiko bencana, skala pelayanan, dan daya tampung.

I. PENETAPAN KAWASAN STRATEGIS
Kawasan ini merupakan kawasan yang didalamnya berlangsung kegiatan yang berpengaruh besar terhadap ekonomi, sosial, budaya, dan/atau lingkungan, antara lain :

  • Kawasan strategis pertahanan dan keamanan;
  • Kawasan strategis pertumbuhan ekonomi;
  • Kawasan strategis sosial budaya;
  • Kawasan strategis pendayagunaan sumber daya alam dan/atau teknologi tinggi;
  • Kawasan strategis fungsi dan daya dukung lingkungan hidup.

Penetapan kawasan ini harus didukung oleh kepentingan tertentu dengan pertimbangan aspek-aspek strategis, kebutuhan pengembangan tertentu, serta kesepakatan dan kebijakan yang ditetapkan diatasnya.

J. ARAHAN PEMANFAATAN RUANG
Penentuan prioritas pembangunan wilayah kota ditinjau dari kebutuhan pembangunan wilayah, sarana dan prasarana prioritas, ketersediaan dana, komponen kawasan utama dengan fungsi multiplier effect, penduduk pendukung, serta arahan pembangunan dalam mewujudkan rencana tata ruang melalui pola penatagunaan tanah, air dan udara, usulan program utama pembangunan, perkiraan dana, dan sumber dana pembangunan, instansi pelaksana, waktu dan tahap pelaksanaan.

Muatan dasar meliputi:

  • Indikasi program utama
  • Perkiraan pendanaan beserta sumbernya
  • Intansi pelaksana
  • Tahapan pelaksanaan

K. KETENTUAN PENGENDALIAN PEMANFAATAN RUANG
+ Ketentuan umum peraturan zonasi
Peraturan zonasi merupakan ketentuan yang mengatur pemanfaatan ruang dan unsur-unsur pengendalian yang disusun untuk setiap zona peruntukan sesuai dengan rencana rinci tata ruang. Indikasi arahan peraturan zonasi berisi ketentuan yang harus, boleh, dan tidak boleh dilaksanakan pada zona pemanfaatan ruang yang dapat terdiri atas ketentuan tentang amplop ruang (koefisien dasar ruang hijau, koefisien dasar bangunan, koefisien lantai bangunan, dan garis sempadan bangunan), penyediaan sarana dan prasarana, serta ketentuan lain yang dibutuhkan untuk mewujudkan ruang yang aman, nyaman, produktif, dan berkelanjutan.

+ Ketentuan perizinan
perizinan yang terkait tentang izin pemanfaatan ruang sebelum pelaksanaan pemanfaatan ruang.

+ Ketentuan insentif dan disinsentif
a. Arahan insentif berupa:

  • Keringanan pajak, Pemberian kompensasi, Subsidi silang, Imbalan, Sewa ruang, Urun saham;
  • Pembangunan serta pengadaan infrastruktur;
  • Kemudahan prosedur perizinan;
  • Pemberian penghargaan kepada masyarakat, swasta dan/atau pemerintah daerah.

b. Arahan disinsentif berupa :

  • Pengenaan pajak yang tinggi yang disesuaikan dengan besarnya biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi dampak yang ditimbulkan akibat pemanfaatan ruang;
  • Pembatasan penyediaan infrastruktur, pengenaan kompensasi, dan penalti.

+ Arahan sanksi
a. Jenis-jenis pelanggaran :

  • Tidak menaati rencana tata ruang yang telah ditetapkan;
  • Tidak memanfaatkan ruang sesuai dengan ijin pemanfaatan ruang dari pejabat yang berwenang
  • Tidak mematuhi ketentuan yang ditetapkan dalam persyaratan ijin pemanfaatan ruang
  • Tidak memberikan akses terhadap kawasan yang oleh ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan dinyatakan sebagai milik umum

b. Jenis-jenis sanksi :

  • peringatan tertulis;
  • penghentian sementara kegiatan;
  • penghentian sementara pelayanan umum;
  • penutupan lokasi;
  • pencabutan ijin; pembatalan ijin;
  • pembongkaran bangunan;
  • pemulihan fungsi ruang; dan/atau
  • denda administratif.

Sumber: UU No 26 Tahun 2007 tentang Penataan Ruang

Kriteria kawasan perkotaan meliputi:
a. memiliki karakteristik kegiatan utama budidaya bukan pertanian atau mata pencaharian penduduknya terutama di bidang industri, perdagangan, dan jasa; dan
b. memiliki karakteristik sebagai pemusatan dan distribusi pelayanan barang dan jasa didukung prasarana dan sarana termasuk pergantian moda transportasi dengan pelayanan skala kabupaten atau beberapa kecamatan.

Bentuk kawasan perkotaan berupa :
a. kota sebagai daerah otonom;
b. bagian daerah kabupaten yang memiliki ciri perkotaan; atau
c. bagian dari dua atau lebih daerah kabupaten yang berbatasan langsung dan memiliki ciri perkotaan.

Perencanaan kawasan perkotaan dilaksanakan secara terintegrasi antara matra ruang, program dan kegiatan.
Perencanaan kawasan perkotaan mempertimbangkan:
a. aspek idiologi, politik, sosial, ekonomi, budaya, lingkungan, teknologi, dan pertahanan dan keamanan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia;
b. pendekatan pengembangan wilayah terpadu;
c. peran dan fungsi kawasan perkotaan;
d. keterkaitan antar kawasan perkotaan dan antara kawasan perkotaan dengan kawasan perdesaan;
e. keterpaduan antara lingkungan buatan dengan daya dukung lingkungan alami; dan
f. pemenuhan kebutuhan penduduk kawasan perkotaan.

Arah pembangunan kawasan perkotaan yang tertuang dalam RPJPD memuat:
a. peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat perkotaan;
b. pemenuhan standar pelayanan perkotaan; dan
c. keterkaitan fungsi antar kawasan perkotaan.

Arah pembangunan kawasan perkotaan yang tertuang dalam RPJPD menjadi acuan penyusunan rencana tata ruang dan pedoman penyusunan RPJMD.
Rencana Tata Ruang Kawasan Perkotaan Otonom tertuang dalam RTRW kota, Rencana Detail Tata Ruang, dan Rencana Teknik Ruang.
Rencana Tata Ruang Kawasan Perkotaan yang berada di kabupaten tertuang dalam Rencana Detail Tata Ruang dan Rencana Teknik Ruang.

Rencana Detail Tata Ruang dijadikan pedoman untuk:
a. pengaturan tata guna tanah (Land Regulation);
b. penerbitan surat keterangan pemanfaatan ruang;
c. penerbitan Advise Planning;
d. penerbitan izin prinsip pembangunan;
e. penerbitan izin lokasi;
f. pengaturan teknis bangunan;
g. penyusunan rencana teknik ruang kawasan perkotaan; dan
h. penyusunan rencana tata bangunan dan lingkungan.

Rencana Teknik Ruang, dijadikan pedoman untuk:
a. penerbitan izin mendirikan bangunan;
b. penertiban letak, ukuran bangunan gedung dan bukan gedung; dan
c. penyusunan rancang bangun bangunan gedung dan bukan gedung.

Sumber: Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 1 Tahun 2008, tentang Pedoman Perencanaan Kawasan Perkotaan

 

Perencanaan kawasan perkotaan baru diprioritaskan untuk:
a. memecahkan permasalahan kepadatan penduduk akibat urbanisasi;
b. menyediakan ruang baru bagi kebutuhan industri, perdagangan dan jasa; dan
c. menyediakan ruang bagi kepentingan pengembangan wilayah di masa depan.

Persyaratan penetapan lokasi perencanaan kawasan perkotaan baru meliputi:
a. sesuai dengan sistem pusat permukiman perkotaan berdasarkan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Nasional, Provinsi, dan Kabupaten;
b. termuat dalam RPJMD;
c. memiliki daya dukung lingkungan yang memungkinkan untuk pengembangan fungsi perkotaan dan bukan kawasan yang rawan bencana alam;
d. terletak di atas tanah yang bukan merupakan kawasan pertanian beririgasi teknis maupun yang direncanakan beririgasi teknis;
e. memiliki kemudahan untuk penyediaan prasarana dan sarana perkotaan;
f. tidak mengakibatkan terjadinya pembangunan yang tidak terkendali. dengan kawasan perkotaan disekitarnya;
g. mendorong aktivitas ekonomi, sesuai dengan fungsi dan perannya; dan
h. mempunyai luas kawasan budi daya paling sedikit 400 hektar dan merupakan satu kesatuan kawasan yang bulat dan utuh, atau satu kesatuan wilayah perencanaan perkotaan dalam satu daerah kabupaten.

Lokasi rencana kawasan perkotaan baru dapat diprakarsai oleh pihak, swasta dan/atau pemerintah daerah. Lokasi yang direncanakan menjadi kawasan perkotaan baru diusulkan kepada bupati. Pengajuan usulan lokasi rencana kawasan perkotaan baru dilampiri:
a. hasil studi kelayakan;
b. rencana induk pembangunan perkotaan baru; dan
c. rencana pembebasan lahan.

Rencana lokasi kawasan perkotaan baru yang berada di dua atau lebih kabupaten yang berbatasan langsung ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten masing-masing. Penetapan lokasi kawasan perkotaan baru terlebih dahulu mendapat persetujuan gubernur.

Rencana pembangunan kawasan perkotaan baru ditetapkan oleh kepala daerah dan dapat dibentuk Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru. Kawasan perkotaan baru yang berlokasi pada bagian dari dua atau lebih kabupaten yang berbatasan langsung dilakukan atas dasar kerjasama antar daerah sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan.

Pelaksanaan kerjasama antar daerah dapat dibentuk Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru yang bertanggung jawab kepada masing-masing bupati. Masa tugas Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru sesuai dengan jangka waktu rencana pelaksanaan pembangunan kawasan perkotaan baru. Keanggotaan Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru terdiri atas unsur Pemerintah Kabupaten, Pemerintah Desa, Badan Permusyawaratan Desa, masyarakat setempat, dan unsur pengembang.

Struktur Organisasi, tugas dan tata kerja Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru ditetapkan dengan Keputusan Bupati. Keanggotaan, struktur organisasi, tugas dan tata kerja Badan Pengelola Pembangunan kawasan perkotaan baru yang berlokasi di dua atau lebih daerah Kabupaten yang berbatasan langsung diatur dengan Keputusan Bersama Bupati.

Badan Pengelola Pembangunan Kawasan Perkotaan Baru melaporkan pelaksanaan tugasnya secara berkala dan atau sewaktu-waktu jika diperlukan kepada bupati dan terbuka bagi masyarakat.
Bupati melaksanakan evaluasi, pembinaan dan pengawasan penyelenggaraan pembangunan kawasan perkotaan baru.

Sumber: Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 1 Tahun 2008, tentang Pedoman Perencanaan Kawasan Perkotaan

 

Prinsip-Prinsip Kerjasama Antara Pemerintah & Swasta:

  1. Prinsip Kontrak Pelayanan, Operasi dan Perawatan

  2. Prinsip Bangun-Operasi-Transfer (Build, Operate and Transfer-BOT)

  3. Prinsip Konsesi

  4. Prinsip Joint Venture

  5. Prinsip Community-Based Provision


1. Prinsip Kontrak Pelayanan, Operasi dan Perawatan

Pengertian:

- Pemerintah memberi wewenang kepada swasta dalam kegiatan operasional, perawatan dan kontrak pelayanan pada infrastruktur yang disediakan oleh pemerintah.

- Pihak swasta membuat suatu pelayanan dengan harga yang telah disetujui dan harus sesuai dengan standar performance yang telah ditentukan oleh pemerintah.

Contoh :

- Kontrak pelayanan sektor air bersih, mulai dari pengoperasian WTP, pendistribusian air bersih sampai dengan operasional dan perawatan pipa.

- Persampahan mulai dari pengumpulan sampah, produksi dan distribusi konteiner sampah

2. Build, Operate and Transfer-BOT

Pengertian:

- Kontrak BOT digunakan dengan melibatkan investasi swasta pada pembangunan konstruksi infrastruktur baru.

- Dibawah prinsip BOT, pendanaan pihak swasta akan digunakan untuk membangun dan mengoperasikan fasilitas atau sistem infrastruktur berdasarkan standar-standar performane yang disusun oleh pemerintah.

- Masa periode yang diberikan memiliki masa waktu yang cukup panjang untuk perusahaan swasta untuk mendapatkan kembali biaya yang telah dikeluarkan guna membangun konstruksi beserta keuntungan yang akan didapat yaitu sekitar 10 sampai 20 tahun. Dalam hal ini pemerintah tetap menguasai kepemilikan fasilitas infrastruktur tersebut.

- BOT merupakan cara yang baik untuk pembangunan infrastruktur baru dengan keterbatasan dana pemerintah.

- Pemerintah menggunakan sistem BOT ini untuk fasilitas-fasilitas infrastruktur yang lebih spesifik seperti penampungan supply air yang besar, air minum, WTP, tempat pengumpulan sampah baik sementara maupun akhir pembuangan, serta tempat pengolahan sampah.

Struktur Pembiayaan Prinsip BOT

- Di dalam BOT, pihak swasta berperan untuk menyediakan modal untuk membangun fasilitas baru.

- Pemerintah akan menyetujui untuk mengeluarkan tingkat produksi yang minimum untuk memastikan bahwa operator swasta dapat menutupi biayanya selama pengoperasian.

- Persyaratan ini menyatakan bahwa untuk mengantisipasi permintaan yang akan diperkirakan meningkat sehingga akan menyebabkan permasalahan bagi rekan pemerintah jika permintaan melewati perkiraan.

Keuntungan Prinsip BOT

- BOT merupakan cara yang efektif untuk menarik modal swasta dalam pembangunan fasilitas infrastruktur baru.

- Perjanjian BOT akan dapat mengurangi pasar dan resikonya kecil bagi pihak swasta karena pemerintah adalah pengguna tunggal, pengurangan resiko disini berhubungan dengan apabila ada permasalahan tidak cukupnya permintaan dan permasalahan kemampuan membayar. Pihak swasta akan menolak tidak cukupnya mekanisme BOT apabila pemerintah tidak memberikan jaminan bahwa investasi Swasta akan kembali.

Catatan:

Model BOT ini telah digunakan banyak negara berkembang untuk membangun pembangkit listrik baru.

3. Prinsip Konsesi

Pengertian:

- Dalam kosensi, Pemerintah memberikan tanggung jawab dan pengelolaan penuh kepada kontraktor (konsesioner) swasta untuk menyediakan pelayanan-pelayanan infrastruktur dalam suatu area tertentu, termasuk dalam hal pengoperasian, perawatan, pengumpulan dan manajemennya.

- Konsesioner bertanggung jawab atas sebagian besar investasi untuk membangun, meningkatkan kapasitas, atau memperluas jaringan, dimana konsesioner mendapatkan pendanaan atas investasi yang dikeluarkan berasal tarif yang dibayar oleh konsumen.

- Sedangkan peran pemerintah bertanggung jawab untuk memberikan standar performance dan menjamin kepada konsesioner.

- Intinya, peran pemerintah telah bergeser dari yang dulunya penyedia pelayanan (provider) menjadi pemberi aturan (regulator) atas harga yang dikenakan dan jumlah harus disediakan.

- Aset-aset infrastruktur yang tetap diperayacakan kepada kosesioner untuk waktu kontrak tertentu, tetapi setelah biasanya 25 tahun. Lamanya tergantung pada lamanya kontrak dan waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh konsesioner swasta untuk menutup biaya yang telah dikeluarkan.

Contoh Kerjasama Prinsip Konsesi:

Pada sektor persampahan…

- pemerintah memberikan suatu konsesi untuk membangun suatu tempat daur ulang serta pengoperasiannya atau membangun suatu fasilitas yang dapat mengubah sampah manjadi suatu energi.

Pada sektor air bersih…

- konsesi memiliki peran penuh dalam pelayanan air pada suatu area tertentu.

Catatan:

Cara konsesi telah banyak digunakan baik tingkat kota maupun tingkat nasional.

Struktur Pembiayaan Prinsip Konsesi:

- Pihak swasta bertanggung jawab atas semua modal dan biaya operasional termasuk pembangunan infrastruktur, energi, material, dan perbaikan-perbaikan selama berlakunya kontrak.

- Pihak swasta dapat berwenang untuk mengambil langsung tarif dari pengguna. Tarif yang berlaku telah ditetapkan sebelumnya pada perjanjian kontrak konsesi, dimana adapun tarif ini ada kemungkinan untuk berubah pada waktu-waktu tertentu.

- Pada beberapa kasus, pemerintah dapat membantu pendanaan untuk menutup pengeluaran konsesioner dalam hal ini merupakan salah satu bentuk jaminan pemerintah namun sebaiknya hal ini dihindarkan.

4. Prinsip Join Venture

Pengertian:

- Kerja sama joine venture merupakan kerja sama pemerintah dan swasta dimana tanggung jawab dan kepemilikan ditanggung bersama dalam hal penyediaan pelayanan infrastruktur. Dalam kerja sama ini masing-masing pihak mempunyai posisi yang seimbang dalam perusahaan.

- Kerja sama ini bertujuan untuk memadukan keunggulan sektor swasta seperti modal, teknologi, kemampuan manajemen, dengan keunggulan pemerintah yakni kewenangan dan kepercayaan masyarakat.

- Perlu diperhatikan pemegang saham mayoritas dan minoritas karena hal ini berkaitan dengan kekuasaan menjalankan perusahaan dan menentukan kebijaksanaan perusahaan karena prinsip kerja sama ini satu saham satu suara.

- Dibawah joinn venture, pemerintah dan swasta dapat membentuk perusahaan baru baru atau menggunakan perusahaan penyedia infrastruktur yang ada (misal perusahaan swasta menjual sebagian mdal kepada swasta). Adapun perusahaan yang ada memiliki fungsi yang independen terhadap pemerintah.

Struktur Pembiayaan Prinsip Joint Venture :

- Di bawah model kerja sama joint venture ini, pihak pemerintah dan swasta harus berkontribusi dalam pembiayaan dari sejak awal, mulai dari pembiayaan studi kelayakan proyek sampai mempersiapkan investasi pada perusahaan baru ketika telah terbentuk.

- Modal-bersama PPP ini memerlukan kesepakatan sebelumnya untuk menanggung resiko dan membagi keuntungan secara bersama-sama. Dengan kata lain, masing-masing harus memiliki kontribusi melalui proyek pembangunan dan implementasinya.

- Secara optimal, perusahaan seharusnya membiayai secara independen. Tapi bagaimanapun tidak menutup kemungkinan pemerintah memberikan subsidi pada perusahaan atau pada penggunaanya namun hal ini dilakukan jika sangat mendesak dan diusahakan agar dihindari.

Catatan:

- Joine venture dapat digunakan konbinasi dari beberapa tipe kerja sama pemerintah dan swasta yang lain.

Misal pemerintah membuka modal secara bersama, khususnya dalam hal pelayanan, BOT, atau konsensi untuk penyediaan infrastruktur.

- Kerja sama Joint venture merupakan suatu alternatif yang dapat dikatakan “benar-benar” public private partnership yaitu antara pemerintah, swasta, lembaga bukan pemerintah, lembaga lainnya yang dapat menyumbangkan sumber daya mereka yang bisa saling “share” dalam menyelesaikan masalah infrastuktur lokal.

- Dibawah Joine venture pemerintah selain memiliki peran sebagai pemberi aturan, juga berperan sebagai shareholder yang aktif dalam menjalankan suatu perusahaan bersama.

- Di bawah Joint venture, pemerintah dan swasta harus bekerja sama dari tahap awal, pembentukan lembaga, sampai pada pembangunan proyek.

5. Prinsip Community-Based Provision (CBP)

Pengertian:

- CBP dapat terdiri dari perorangan, keluarga, atau perusahaan kecil.

- CBO memiliki peran utama dalam mengorganisasikan penduduk miskin ke dalam kegiatan bersama dan kepentingan mereka akan direpresentasikan dan dinegosiasikan dengan NGO dan pemerintah.

- NGO berperan untuk menyediakan proses manajemen, menengahi negosisasi antara CBO dan lembaga yang lebih besar lainnya dalam hal bentuk jaringan kerjasama, pemberian informasi ataupun kebijasanaan.

Struktur Pembiayaan Prinsip Community-Based Provision (CBP):

- Community-based provision memiliki karakteristik khusus yaitu memerlukan biaya rendah dan biaya tersebut dapat dikatakan sebagai “modal”-nya yang telah disediakan oleh penyedia setempat beserta material mereka.

- Pengorganisasian dan biaya material biasanya disediakan oleh NGO-NGO, sumbangan-sumbangan, asisten pengurus pembangunan, pemerintah atau oleh komunitas tersebut.

- Biaya perawatan seharusnya didapat dari tarif pengguna atau pendapatan.

- Pengetahuan setempat yang ada secara menyeluruh dapat mengikuti dengan pembangunan yang ada setidaknya dapat memberikan salah satu solusi dari kebutuhan biaya dimana tetap menjaga pengeluaran yang rendah.

Contoh Kerjasama Prinsip Community-Based Provision (CBP):

Pada sektor persampahan…

- Banyak permukiman-permukiman miskin atau menengah ke bawah memiliki pengaturan sampah padat oleh komunitas setempat yaitu dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan dari pintu ke pintu, di jalan dan tempat sampah pinggir jalan dan di pilih dan di daur ulang untuk di jual kembali, hal tersebut banyak terjadi negara berkembang

Contoh: Komunitas Bagus Rangin di Kota Bandung mengumpulkan sampah dengan menggunakan CBP ini.

Pada sektor persampahan…

- Pada sektor air bersih, CBP ini membeli air dalam jumlah besar dan menjualnya kepada komunitas mereka dalam bentuk ember.

PERATURAN PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 67 TAHUN 2005

TENTANG KERJASAMA PEMERINTAH DENGAN BADAN USAHA DALAM PENYEDIAAN INFRASTRUKTUR

Jenis Infrastruktur yang dapat dikerjasamakan

Bab II Pasal 4:

- infrastruktur transportasi, meliputi pelabuhan laut, sungai atau danau, bandar udara, jaringan rel dan stasiun kereta api;

- infrastruktur jalan, meliputi jalan tol dan jembatan tol;

- infrastruktur pengairan, meliputi saluran pembawa air baku;

- infrastruktur air minum yang meliputi bangunan pengambilan air baku, jaringan transmisi, jaringan distribusi, instalasi pengolahan air minum;

- infrastruktur air limbah yang meliputi instalasi pengolah air limbah, jaringan pengumpul dan jaringan utama, dan sarana persampahan yang meliputi pengangkut dan tempat pembuangan;

- infrastruktur telekomunikasi, meliputi jaringan telekomunikasi;

- infrastruktur ketenagalistrikan, meliputi pembangkit, transmisi atau distribusi tenaga listrik; dan

- infrastruktur minyak dan gas bumi meliputi pengolahan,

Isi Ketentuan Perjanjian Kerjasama

Bab VIII Pasal 23:

- lingkup pekerjaan;

- jangka waktu;

- jaminan pelaksanaan;

- tarif dan mekanisme penyesuaiannya;

- hak dan kewajiban, termasuk alokasi resiko;

- standar kinerja pelayanan;

- larangan pengalihan Perjanjian Kerjasama atau penyertaan saham pada Badan Usaha pemegang Perjanjian Kerjasama sebelum Penyediaan Infrastruktur beroperasi secara komersial;

- sanksi dalam hal para pihak tidak memenuhi ketentuan perjanjian;

- pemutusan atau pengakhiran perjanjian;

- laporan keuangan Badan Usaha dalam rangka pelaksanaan perjanjian, yang diperiksa secara tahunan oleh auditor independen, dan pengumuma nnya dalam media cetak yang berskala nasional;

- mekanisme penyelesaian sengketa yang diatur secara berjenjang, yaitu musyawarah mufakat, mediasi, dan arbitrase/ pengadilan;

- mekanisme pengawasan kinerja Badan Usaha dalam pelaksanaan perjanjian;

- pengembalian infrastruktur dan/ atau pengelolaannya kepada Menteri/ Kepala Lembaga/ Kepala Daerah;

- keadaan memaksa;

- hukum yang berlaku, yaitu hukum Indonesia.

Kawasan perkotaan adalah wilayah yang mempunyai kegiatan utama bukan pertanian, dengan susunan fungsi kawasan sebagai tempat permukiman perkotaan, pemusatan dan distribusi pelayanan jasa pemerintahan, pelayanan sosial dan kegiatan ekonomi.
Pemanfaatan lahan, adalah penggunaan tanah untuk aktivitas/kegiatan orang atau badan hukum yang dapat ditunjukkan secara nyata.
Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan adalah pemanfaatan baru atas tanah, yang tidak sesuai dengan yang ditentukan dalam rencana tata ruang wilayah kabupaten/kota.

Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan dapat dilakukan dengan berazaskan keterbukaan, persamaan, keadilan, pelestarian lingkungan dan perlindungan hukum. Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan mengacu pada RDTR kabupaten/kota dengan tetap memperhatikan keberlangsungan fungsi kawasan, daya dukung dan kesesuaian lahan secara terpadu. Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan yang tidak sesuai dengan RDTR hanya dapat dilakukan dengan pertimbangan keselarasan kebutuhan lahan untuk kegiatan ekonomi dengan keberlangsungan lingkungan.

Pertimbangan keselarasan kebutuhan lahan berdasarkan pertimbangan teknis, pola insentif dan disinsentif yang ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Daerah.

Rencana perubahan pemanfaatan lahan dapat diusulkan oleh pihak swasta, masyarakat dan dinas/lembaga kepada instansi yang berwenang di daerah. Instansi yang berwenang melakukan kajian dan mengkoordinasikan dalam forum Badan Koordinasi Penataan Ruang Daerah. Bupati/Walikota dapat membentuk tim khusus dengan beranggotakan instansi terkait beserta anggota DPRD, berdasarkan hasil analisis Badan Koordinasi, Penataan Ruang Daerah untuk melakukan kajian teknis terhadap kelayakari rencana perubahan pemanfaatan lahan. Hasil kajian teknis dari tim khusus dan analisis Badan Koordinasi Penataan Ruang Daerah menjadi dasar pertimbangan persetujuan bupati/walikota perubahan pemanfaatan lahan. Rencana perubahan pemanfaatan lahan ditetapkan dengan Peraturan Daerah kabupaten/kota.

Sumber: Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 1 Tahun 2008, tentang Pedoman Perencanaan Kawasan Perkotaan

Labels: Rencana Tata Ruang Kota (RTRK)

Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Spatial planning includes all levels of land use planning including urban planning, regional planning, national spatial plans, and in the European Union international levels.

There are numerous definitions of spatial planning. One of the earliest definitions comes from the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (often called the ‘Torremolinos Charter’), adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT): “Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy.”

Numerous planning systems exist around the world. Especially in Northwestern Europe spatial planning has evolved greatly since the late 1950s. In the country of the Netherlands spatial planning has carved out its own niche. Dutch spatial planning, noted for its “manicured planning system”, can be seen as one of the most advanced forms of spatial planning in the world.

European Spatial Planning

In 1999, a document called the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) was signed by the ministers responsible for regional planning in the EU member states. Although the ESDP has no binding status, and the European Union has no formal authority for spatial planning, the ESDP has influenced spatial planning policy in European regions and member states, and placed the coordination of EU sectoral policies on the political agenda.

At the European level, the term territorial cohesion is becoming more widely used and is for example mentioned in the draft EU Treaty (Constitution) as a shared competency of the European Union; it is also included in the Reform Treaty. The term was defined in a “scoping document” in Rotterdam in late 2004 and is being elaborated further using empirical data from the ESPON programme in a document entitled The Territorial State and Perspectives of the European Union. At the minister’s conference in May 2007 in Leipzig, a political document called the “Territorial Agenda” was signed to continue the process begun in Rotterdam.

Zoning is a term used in urban planning for a system of land-use regulation in various parts of the world, including North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The word is derived from the practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one set of land uses from another.

Scope

Theoretically, the primary purpose of zoning is to segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible; in practice, zoning is used as a permitting system to prevent new development from harming existing residents or businesses. Zoning is commonly controlled by local governments such as counties or municipalities, though the nature of the zoning regime may be determined by state or national planning authorities. In Australia, land under the control of the Commonwealth (Federal) government is not subject to state planning controls. The United States and other federal countries are similar.

Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot (setbacks), the proportions of the types of space on a lot (for example, how much landscaped space and how much paved space), and how much parking must be provided. The details of how individual planning systems incorporate zoning into their regulatory regimes varies though the intention is always similar. For example, in the state of Victoria, Australia, land use zones are combined with a system of planning scheme overlays to account for the multiplicity of factors that impact on desirable urban outcomes in any location.

Most zoning systems have a procedure for granting variances (exceptions to the zoning rules), usually because of some perceived hardship caused by the particular nature of the property in question.

Types of residential zones would be R1 for single-family homes, R2 for two-family homes, and R3 for multiple-family homes.

Types

Zoning codes have evolved over the years as urban planning theory has changed, legal constraints have fluctuated, and political priorities have shifted. The various approaches to zoning can be divided into four broad categories: Euclidean, Performance, Incentive, and Design-based.

Euclidean

Named for the type of zoning code adopted in the town of Euclid, Ohio, Euclidean zoning codes are by far the most prevalent in the United States, used extensively in small towns and large cities alike. Also known as “Building Block” zoning, Euclidean zoning is characterized by the segregation of land uses into specified geographic districts and dimensional standards stipulating limitations on the magnitude of development activity that is allowed to take place on lots within each type of district. Typical types of land-use districts in Euclidean zoning are: residential (single-family), residential (multi-family), commercial, and industrial. Uses within each district are usually heavily prescribed to exclude other types of uses (residential districts typically disallow commercial or industrial uses). Some “accessory” or “conditional” uses may be allowed in order to accommodate the needs of the primary uses. Dimensional standards apply to any structures built on lots within each zoning district, and typically take the form of setbacks, height limits, minimum lot sizes, lot coverage limits, and other limitations on the building envelope.

Euclidean zoning is utilized by some municipalities because of its relative effectiveness, ease of implementation (one set of explicit, prescriptive rules), long-established legal precedent, and familiarity to planners and design professionals.

However, Euclidean zoning has received heavy criticism for its lack of flexibility and institutionalization of now-outdated planning theory (see below).

Performance

Also known as “Effects-based planning”, Performance Zoning uses performance-based or goal-oriented criteria to establish review parameters for proposed development projects in any area of a municipality. Performance zoning often utilizes a “points-based” system whereby a property developer can apply credits toward meeting established zoning goals through selecting from a ‘menu’ of compliance options (some examples include: mitigation of environmental impacts, providing public amenities, building affordable housing units, etc.). Additional discretionary criteria may also be established as part of the review process.

The appeal of Performance Zoning lies in its high level of flexibility, rationality, transparency and accountability. Performance Zoning avoids the arbitrary nature of the Euclidian approach, and better accommodates market principles and private property rights with environmental protection. However, performance zoning can be extremely difficult to implement and can require a high level of discretionary activity on the part of the supervising authority.

Incentive

First implemented in Chicago and New York City, incentive zoning is intended to provide a reward-based system to encourage development that meets established urban development goals Typically, a base level of prescriptive limitations on development will be established and an extensive list of incentive criteria will be established for developers to adopt or not at their discretion. A reward scale connected to the incentive criteria provides an enticement for developers to incorporate the desired development criteria into their projects. Common examples include FAR (floor-area-ratio) bonuses for affordable housing provided on-site and height limit bonuses for the inclusion of public amenities on-site.

Incentive zoning allows for a high degree of flexibility, but can be complex to administer. The more a proposed development takes advantage of incentive criteria, the more closely it has to be reviewed on a discretionary basis. The initial creation of the incentive structure in order to best serve planning priorities can also be challenging and often requires extensive ongoing revision to maintain balance between incentive magnitude and value given to developers.

Form-based

Form-based zoning relies on rules applied to development sites according to both prescriptive and potentially discretionary criteria. These criteria are typically dependent on lot size, location, proximity, and other various site- and use-specific characteristics.

Design-based codes offer considerably more flexibility in building uses than do Euclidean codes, but, as they are comparatively new, may be more challenging to create. When form-based codes do not contain appropriate illustrations and diagrams, they have been criticized as being difficult to interpret.

One example of a recently adopted code with design-based features is the Land Development Code adopted by Louisville, Kentucky in 2003. This zoning code creates “form districts” for Louisville Metro. Each form district intends to recognize that some areas of the city are more suburban in nature, while others are more urban. Building setbacks, heights, and design features vary according to the form district. As an example, in a “traditional neighborhood” form district, a maximum setback might be 15 feet from the property line, while in a suburban “neighborhood” there may be no maximum setback.

Zoning in UK

Main article: Development control in the United Kingdom

Development Control or Planning Control is the element of the United Kingdom’s system of Town and Country Planning through which local government regulates land use and new building. It relies on the “plan-led system” whereby Development Plans are formed and the public consulted. Subsequent development requires Planning permission, which will be granted or refused with reference to the Development Plan as a material consideration.

There are 421 Local Planning Authorities (LPAs) in the United Kingdom. Generally they are the local Borough or District Council or a unitary authority. Development involving mining, minerals or waste disposal matters is dealt with by County Councils in non-metropolitan areas. Within national parks, it is the National Park Authority that determines planning applications.

Zoning in Australia

Main article: Development control in Australia

Statutory planning otherwise known as town planning, development control or development management, refers to the part of the planning process that is concerned with the regulation and management of changes to land use and development.

Zoning in New Zealand

Main article: Resource Management Act 1991

New Zealand’s planning system is grounded in effects-based Performance Zoning under the Resource Management Act.

Zoning in USA

Main article: Zoning in the United States

Zoning regulations fall under the police power rights state governments may exercise over private real property.

Origins and history

Special laws and regulations were long made, restricting the places where particular businesses should be carried on. In the 1860s a specific State statute prohibited all commercial activities along Eastern Parkway (Brooklyn), setting a trend for future decades.[citation needed]

In 1916, New York City adopted the first zoning regulations to apply city-wide as a reaction to construction of The Equitable Building (which still stands at 120 Broadway). The building towered over the neighboring residences, completely covering all available land area within the property boundary, blocking windows of neighboring buildings and diminishing the availability of sunshine for the people in the affected area. These laws, written by a commission headed by Edward Bassett and signed by Mayor John Purroy Mitchel, became the blueprint for zoning in the rest of the country, partly because Bassett headed the group of planning lawyers which wrote The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act that was accepted almost without change by most states. The effect of these zoning regulations on the shape of skyscrapers was famously illustrated by architect and illustrator Hugh Ferriss.

The constitutionality of zoning ordinances was upheld in 1926. The zoning ordinance of Euclid, Ohio was challenged in court by a local land owner on the basis that restricting use of property violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Though initially ruled unconstitutional by lower courts, the zoning ordinance was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.

By the late 1920s most of the nation had developed a set of zoning regulations that met the needs of the locality.[citation needed]

New York City went on to develop ever more complex set of zoning regulations, including floor-area ratio regulations, air rights and others according to the density-specific needs of the neighborhoods.

Among large populated cities in the United States, Houston is unique in having no zoning ordinances. Houston voters have rejected efforts to implement zoning in 1948, 1962 and 1993.

Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development, namely architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level.

Another key role of urban planning is urban renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong's CBD.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world’s largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong’s CBD.

History

Urban planning as an organized profession has existed for less than a century, however most settlements and cities have displayed various degrees of forethought and conscious design in their layout and functioning.

As agriculture replaced a nomadic existence, permanent human settlements, and larger settlements began to appear. These early cities became centres for trade, defense, and politics and as centers for distributing the agricultural surplus a settled farming society produces.

Cities laid out with forethought and design permeate antiquity. Perhaps the earliest of these were those of the ancient Mesopotamian and Harrapan civilizations of the third century BCE.

Ur located near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in modern day Iraq and some ancient cities of the Indus Valley in modern day India are perhaps the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities in history. The streets of these early cities were often paved and laid out at right angles in a grid pattern. There was also with a hierarchy of streets (commercial boulevards to small residential alleyways). In Harrapan settlements, archaeological evidence suggests the houses were laid out to protect from noise, odors, and thieves, and had their own wells, and sanitation. Ancient cities often had drainage, large granaries, and well-developed urban sanitation

The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) is widely considered the father of city planning in the West, for his design of Miletus; Alexander commissioned him to lay out Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the Mediterranean world, where regularity was aided in large part by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan is a central plaza with city services, surrounded by a compact rectilinear grid of streets and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets cross the square grid corner-to-corner, passing through the central square. A river usually flows through the city, to provide water and transport, and carry away sewage, even in sieges.[citation needed] Effectively, many European towns still preserve the essence of these schemes, as in Turin.The Romans had a very logical way of designing their cities. They put all the streets at right angles, set up in a square grid. All the roads were equal in width and length except for two. These two roads formed the center of the grid and intersected in the middle. One went East/West, the other North/South. They were slightly wider than the others. All roads were made of carefully fitted stones and smaller hard packed stones. Bridges were also constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulae. An insulae was the Roman equivalent of a city block. Each insulae was 80 yards square. The land of each insulae was divided up. As the city developed, each insulae would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and would be crisscrossed with back roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a budding new Roman city, but each person had to pay for the building of their own houses. The city was surrounded by a wall to protect the city from invaders and other enemies, and to mark the cities limits. Area outside of the walls and city limits was left for farmland. At the end of each main road, there was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege. Other watchtowers were constructed around the rest of the city’s wall. An aqueduct was built outside of the cities walls. This brought in the water necessary for the cities functioning.

The idea of rational planning collapsed with the idea of the res publica in the European Early Middle Ages. Round a fortress or fortified abbey or next to a Roman nucleus — sometimes itself abandoned— urban growth occurred “like the annular rings of a tree” whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. Since the new center was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal city resurfaced in the Early Renaissance in Florence, where the star-shaped city plan was adapted from the new cannon-resistant star fort. The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of Renaissance urban planning: “The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi— was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city” Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military, communal or spiritual power. Only in ideal cities did a centrally-planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael’s Sposalizio of 1504 (illustration); as built, the unique example of a rationally-planned quattrocento new city center, that of Vigevano, 1493-95, resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading. Filarete’s ideal city, building on hints in Leone Battista Alberti’s De re aedificatoria, was named “Sforzinda” in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a “perfect” Pythagorean figure, the circle, takes no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete’s manuscript.

The true heirs of Greek rational planning were the Muslims, who are thought to have originated the idea of formal zoning (see haram and hima and the more general notion of khalifa, or “stewardship” from which they arise),[citation needed] although modern usage in the West largely dates from the ideas of the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne.

Many cities in Central American civilizations also engineered urban planning in their cities including sewage systems and running water. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with close to 250,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

In developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia) during the last two centuries, planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus. Firstly there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around the turn of the 20th century there began to be a movement for providing people, and factory workers in particular, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities arose and some model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City the world’s first garden cities, in Hertfordshire, UK. However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few thousand residents.

It wasn’t until the 1920s when modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by war destructions led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government housing. Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil.

By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners were coming to realise that the imposition of modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within these planned neighbourhoods. Modernism can be said to have ended in the 1970s when the construction of the cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in many countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the post-modernist era.

Minimally-planned cities still exist. Houston is an example of a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country, without a comprehensive zoning ordinance. Houston does, however, have many of the land use restrictions covered by traditional zoning regulations, such as restrictions on development density and parking requirements, even though specific land uses are not regulated. Moreover, private-sector developers have used subdivision covenants and deed restrictions effectively to create the same kinds of land use restrictions found in most municipal zoning laws. Houston voters have rejected proposals for a comprehensive zoning ordinance three times since 1948. Even without zoning in its traditional sense, metropolitan Houston displays similar land use patterns at the macro scale to regions comparable in age and population that do have zoning, such as Dallas. This suggests that factors outside the regulatory environment, such as the provision of urban infrastructure and methods of financing development, may play a greater role in the way American cities are developed than does zoning.

Sustainable development and Sustainability

Sustainable development and sustainability have become buzzwords in the planning industry, with the recognition that present ways of consumption and living have led to problems like the overuse of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, urban heat islands, pollution, growing inequality in cities, the degradation of human living conditions and human-induced climate change. Planners have, as a result, taken to advocating for the development of sustainable cities

However, the notion of sustainable development can be considered as rather recent and evolving, with many questions surrounding this concept. That said, it is often not difficult to recognise what are ‘unsustainable’ forms of lifestyles, and urban planning is recognised to play a crucial position in the development of sustainable cities.

Stephen Wheeler, in his 1998 article, suggests a definition for sustainable urban development to be as “development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns.” He goes on to suggest a framework that might help all to better understand what a ‘sustainable’ city might look like. These include compact, efficient land use; less automobile use yet with better access; efficient resource use, less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; sustainable economics; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom.

The difficult challenge facing planners comes with the implementation of sustainability visions, policy and programmes, and in the midst of doing so, the need to modify institutions to achieve these goals. This is still being worked out by urban planners.

Aspects of planning

Aesthetics

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

In developed countries there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings Other issues that generate strong debate amongst urban designers are tensions between peripheral growth, increased housing density and planned new settlements. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate.

Successful urban planning considers character, of “home” and “sense of place”, local identity, respect for natural, artistic and historic heritage, an understanding of the “urban grain” or “townscape,” pedestrians and other modes of traffic, utilities and natural hazards, such as flood zones.

Some argue that the medieval piazza and arcade are the most widely appreciated elements of successful urban design, as demonstrated by the Italian cities of Siena and Bologna[citation needed].

While it is rare that cities are planned from scratch, planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term, smart growth.

There are some cities that have been planned from conception, and while the results often don’t turn out quite as planned, evidence of the initial plan often remains. (See List of planned cities)

Safety

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

Historically within the Middle East, Europe and the rest of the Old World settlements were located on higher ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources[citation needed]. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of open space provision.

Extreme weather, flood, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centres. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters.

In recent years, practitioners have also been expected to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with different abilities, practicing the notion of “inclusive design,” to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently to “design-out crime” and to consider “traffic calming” or “pedestrianisation” as ways of making urban life more pleasant.

City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals’ obedience to social rules. The theories often say that psychological pressure develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism.

Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory cites the modernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of environmental determinism, where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas, which are hard for residents to identify with. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder Source

Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the “eyes on the street” concept. By improving ‘natural surveillance’ of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it, and increasing the familiarity of residents, as a collective, residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behaviour.

The “broken-windows” theory argues that small indicators of neglect, such as broken windows and unkempt lawns, promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties. The theory suggests that abandonment causes crime, rather than crime causing abandonment[citation needed].

Some planning methods might help an elite group to control ordinary citizens. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the movement of military troops. In Rome, the Fascists in the 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the elegant town.

Other social theories point out that in Britain and most countries since the 18th century, the transformation of societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difficult adaptation to urban living. These theories emphasize that many planning policies ignore personal tensions, forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual extraneity to their cities. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling “at home” when at home. Often these theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used “standards” that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively unregulated) market.

Slums
Main article: Slums

The rapid urbanization of the last century has resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in the Third World. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development, and many planning theorists and practitioners are calling for increased attention and resources in this area, particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners. When urban planners give their attention to slums, one also have to pay attention to the racial make – up of that area to ensure that racial steering does not occur.

The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance, however more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi’s “Camp of Fire” program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. The “Camp of Fire” program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International, which has programs in Africa, Asia, and South America.

Urban decay
Main article: Urban decay

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair. It is characterized by depopulation, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes.

Urban decay was associated with Western cities, especially North America and parts of Europe during the 1970s and 1980s. During this time period major changes in global economies, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay.

The effects of urban decay run counter to the development patterns found in most cities in Europe and countries outside of North America, where slums are usually located on the outskirts of major metropolitan areas while the city center and inner city retain high real estate values and a steady or increasing population. In contrast, North American cities often experienced an outflux of population to city suburbs or exurbs, as in the case of white flight.

There is no single cause of urban decay, though it may be triggered by a combination of interrelated factors, including urban planning decisions, the development of freeways, suburbanisation, redlining, immigration restrictions and racial discrimination.

Reconstruction and renewal
Main article: Urban Renewal

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area, the proposed Kabul - City of Light Development.

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul’s Old City area, the proposed Kabul – City of Light Development.

Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners: the area of development is not one for simple modification, nor is it a “blank slate”. Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what, if anything, can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of population; more often than not, people are also still living in these areas, displaced but not removed, and their issues need to be addressed. Historic areas and religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which after decades of civil war and occupation has regions that have literally been reduced to rubble. Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of whatever can be salvaged. Any reconstruction plan proposed, such as Hisham Ashkouri’s City of Light Development, needs to be sensitive to the needs of this community and its existing culture, businesses and needs.

Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs.

Transport
Main article: Transportation Planning

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

There is a direct, well-researched connection between the density of an urban environment, and the need to travel within it[citation needed]. Good quality transport is often followed by development. Development beyond a certain density can quickly overcrowd transport[citation needed].

Good planning attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation. For example, some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and four-lane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks further away[citation needed].

Densities can be measured in several ways[citation needed]. A common method, used is the Floor area ratio, using the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. Ratios below 1.5 could be considered low density, and plot ratios above five very high density. Most exurbs are below two, while most city centres are well above five. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more.

City authorities may try to encourage lower densities to reduce infrastructure costs, though some observers note that low densities may not accommodate enough population to provide adequate demand or funding for that infrastructure. In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centres, etc) more viable. However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as ‘town cramming’ and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market led choice[citation needed].

Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five[citation needed]. These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems. The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 1% ridership[citation needed].

The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion.

Some theoreticians[citation needed] speculate that personal rapid transit (PRT) might coax people from their automobiles, and yet effectively serve intermediate densities, but this has not been demonstrated.

Addressing

If house numbering is part of the plan, the risk that the numbering task will end up in the hands of non-professionals can be reduced, saving citizens much lost time looking for addresses later. This is especially important for non grid plan areas with no city-wide addressing standard already in place. Unfortunately addressing is often not even mentioned in urban planning courses.

Suburbanization
Main article: Suburbanization

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

In some countries declining satisfaction with the urban environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city region and help to reduce both congestion along transport routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive commuting. Urban scholar N.J. Slabbert claims that the advent of the Internet has opened the way to “telecommunities” or populations of workers who will no longer commute physically, and that this will greatly revitalize small towns in the 21st century.

Environmental factors

Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development, namely architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level.

Another key role of urban planning is urban renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong's CBD.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world’s largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong’s CBD.

History

Urban planning as an organized profession has existed for less than a century, however most settlements and cities have displayed various degrees of forethought and conscious design in their layout and functioning.

As agriculture replaced a nomadic existence, permanent human settlements, and larger settlements began to appear. These early cities became centres for trade, defense, and politics and as centers for distributing the agricultural surplus a settled farming society produces.

Cities laid out with forethought and design permeate antiquity. Perhaps the earliest of these were those of the ancient Mesopotamian and Harrapan civilizations of the third century BCE.

Ur located near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in modern day Iraq and some ancient cities of the Indus Valley in modern day India are perhaps the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities in history. The streets of these early cities were often paved and laid out at right angles in a grid pattern. There was also with a hierarchy of streets (commercial boulevards to small residential alleyways). In Harrapan settlements, archaeological evidence suggests the houses were laid out to protect from noise, odors, and thieves, and had their own wells, and sanitation. Ancient cities often had drainage, large granaries, and well-developed urban sanitation

The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) is widely considered the father of city planning in the West, for his design of Miletus; Alexander commissioned him to lay out Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the Mediterranean world, where regularity was aided in large part by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan is a central plaza with city services, surrounded by a compact rectilinear grid of streets and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets cross the square grid corner-to-corner, passing through the central square. A river usually flows through the city, to provide water and transport, and carry away sewage, even in sieges.[citation needed] Effectively, many European towns still preserve the essence of these schemes, as in Turin.The Romans had a very logical way of designing their cities. They put all the streets at right angles, set up in a square grid. All the roads were equal in width and length except for two. These two roads formed the center of the grid and intersected in the middle. One went East/West, the other North/South. They were slightly wider than the others. All roads were made of carefully fitted stones and smaller hard packed stones. Bridges were also constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulae. An insulae was the Roman equivalent of a city block. Each insulae was 80 yards square. The land of each insulae was divided up. As the city developed, each insulae would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and would be crisscrossed with back roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a budding new Roman city, but each person had to pay for the building of their own houses. The city was surrounded by a wall to protect the city from invaders and other enemies, and to mark the cities limits. Area outside of the walls and city limits was left for farmland. At the end of each main road, there was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege. Other watchtowers were constructed around the rest of the city’s wall. An aqueduct was built outside of the cities walls. This brought in the water necessary for the cities functioning.

The idea of rational planning collapsed with the idea of the res publica in the European Early Middle Ages. Round a fortress or fortified abbey or next to a Roman nucleus — sometimes itself abandoned— urban growth occurred “like the annular rings of a tree” whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. Since the new center was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal city resurfaced in the Early Renaissance in Florence, where the star-shaped city plan was adapted from the new cannon-resistant star fort. The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of Renaissance urban planning: “The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi— was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city” Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military, communal or spiritual power. Only in ideal cities did a centrally-planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael’s Sposalizio of 1504 (illustration); as built, the unique example of a rationally-planned quattrocento new city center, that of Vigevano, 1493-95, resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading. Filarete’s ideal city, building on hints in Leone Battista Alberti’s De re aedificatoria, was named “Sforzinda” in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a “perfect” Pythagorean figure, the circle, takes no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete’s manuscript.

The true heirs of Greek rational planning were the Muslims, who are thought to have originated the idea of formal zoning (see haram and hima and the more general notion of khalifa, or “stewardship” from which they arise),[citation needed] although modern usage in the West largely dates from the ideas of the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne.

Many cities in Central American civilizations also engineered urban planning in their cities including sewage systems and running water. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with close to 250,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

In developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia) during the last two centuries, planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus. Firstly there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around the turn of the 20th century there began to be a movement for providing people, and factory workers in particular, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities arose and some model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City the world’s first garden cities, in Hertfordshire, UK. However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few thousand residents.

It wasn’t until the 1920s when modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by war destructions led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government housing. Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil.

By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners were coming to realise that the imposition of modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within these planned neighbourhoods. Modernism can be said to have ended in the 1970s when the construction of the cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in many countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the post-modernist era.

Minimally-planned cities still exist. Houston is an example of a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country, without a comprehensive zoning ordinance. Houston does, however, have many of the land use restrictions covered by traditional zoning regulations, such as restrictions on development density and parking requirements, even though specific land uses are not regulated. Moreover, private-sector developers have used subdivision covenants and deed restrictions effectively to create the same kinds of land use restrictions found in most municipal zoning laws. Houston voters have rejected proposals for a comprehensive zoning ordinance three times since 1948. Even without zoning in its traditional sense, metropolitan Houston displays similar land use patterns at the macro scale to regions comparable in age and population that do have zoning, such as Dallas. This suggests that factors outside the regulatory environment, such as the provision of urban infrastructure and methods of financing development, may play a greater role in the way American cities are developed than does zoning.

Sustainable development and Sustainability

Sustainable development and sustainability have become buzzwords in the planning industry, with the recognition that present ways of consumption and living have led to problems like the overuse of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, urban heat islands, pollution, growing inequality in cities, the degradation of human living conditions and human-induced climate change. Planners have, as a result, taken to advocating for the development of sustainable cities

However, the notion of sustainable development can be considered as rather recent and evolving, with many questions surrounding this concept. That said, it is often not difficult to recognise what are ‘unsustainable’ forms of lifestyles, and urban planning is recognised to play a crucial position in the development of sustainable cities.

Stephen Wheeler, in his 1998 article, suggests a definition for sustainable urban development to be as “development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns.” He goes on to suggest a framework that might help all to better understand what a ‘sustainable’ city might look like. These include compact, efficient land use; less automobile use yet with better access; efficient resource use, less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; sustainable economics; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom.

The difficult challenge facing planners comes with the implementation of sustainability visions, policy and programmes, and in the midst of doing so, the need to modify institutions to achieve these goals. This is still being worked out by urban planners.

Aspects of planning

Aesthetics

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

In developed countries there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings Other issues that generate strong debate amongst urban designers are tensions between peripheral growth, increased housing density and planned new settlements. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate.

Successful urban planning considers character, of “home” and “sense of place”, local identity, respect for natural, artistic and historic heritage, an understanding of the “urban grain” or “townscape,” pedestrians and other modes of traffic, utilities and natural hazards, such as flood zones.

Some argue that the medieval piazza and arcade are the most widely appreciated elements of successful urban design, as demonstrated by the Italian cities of Siena and Bologna[citation needed].

While it is rare that cities are planned from scratch, planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term, smart growth.

There are some cities that have been planned from conception, and while the results often don’t turn out quite as planned, evidence of the initial plan often remains. (See List of planned cities)

Safety

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

Historically within the Middle East, Europe and the rest of the Old World settlements were located on higher ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources[citation needed]. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of open space provision.

Extreme weather, flood, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centres. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters.

In recent years, practitioners have also been expected to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with different abilities, practicing the notion of “inclusive design,” to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently to “design-out crime” and to consider “traffic calming” or “pedestrianisation” as ways of making urban life more pleasant.

City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals’ obedience to social rules. The theories often say that psychological pressure develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism.

Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory cites the modernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of environmental determinism, where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas, which are hard for residents to identify with. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder Source

Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the “eyes on the street” concept. By improving ‘natural surveillance’ of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it, and increasing the familiarity of residents, as a collective, residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behaviour.

The “broken-windows” theory argues that small indicators of neglect, such as broken windows and unkempt lawns, promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties. The theory suggests that abandonment causes crime, rather than crime causing abandonment[citation needed].

Some planning methods might help an elite group to control ordinary citizens. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the movement of military troops. In Rome, the Fascists in the 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the elegant town.

Other social theories point out that in Britain and most countries since the 18th century, the transformation of societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difficult adaptation to urban living. These theories emphasize that many planning policies ignore personal tensions, forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual extraneity to their cities. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling “at home” when at home. Often these theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used “standards” that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively unregulated) market.

Slums
Main article: Slums

The rapid urbanization of the last century has resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in the Third World. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development, and many planning theorists and practitioners are calling for increased attention and resources in this area, particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners. When urban planners give their attention to slums, one also have to pay attention to the racial make – up of that area to ensure that racial steering does not occur.

The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance, however more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi’s “Camp of Fire” program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. The “Camp of Fire” program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International, which has programs in Africa, Asia, and South America.

Urban decay
Main article: Urban decay

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair. It is characterized by depopulation, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes.

Urban decay was associated with Western cities, especially North America and parts of Europe during the 1970s and 1980s. During this time period major changes in global economies, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay.

The effects of urban decay run counter to the development patterns found in most cities in Europe and countries outside of North America, where slums are usually located on the outskirts of major metropolitan areas while the city center and inner city retain high real estate values and a steady or increasing population. In contrast, North American cities often experienced an outflux of population to city suburbs or exurbs, as in the case of white flight.

There is no single cause of urban decay, though it may be triggered by a combination of interrelated factors, including urban planning decisions, the development of freeways, suburbanisation, redlining, immigration restrictions and racial discrimination.

Reconstruction and renewal
Main article: Urban Renewal

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area, the proposed Kabul - City of Light Development.

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul’s Old City area, the proposed Kabul – City of Light Development.

Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners: the area of development is not one for simple modification, nor is it a “blank slate”. Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what, if anything, can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of population; more often than not, people are also still living in these areas, displaced but not removed, and their issues need to be addressed. Historic areas and religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which after decades of civil war and occupation has regions that have literally been reduced to rubble. Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of whatever can be salvaged. Any reconstruction plan proposed, such as Hisham Ashkouri’s City of Light Development, needs to be sensitive to the needs of this community and its existing culture, businesses and needs.

Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs.

Transport
Main article: Transportation Planning

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

There is a direct, well-researched connection between the density of an urban environment, and the need to travel within it[citation needed]. Good quality transport is often followed by development. Development beyond a certain density can quickly overcrowd transport[citation needed].

Good planning attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation. For example, some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and four-lane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks further away[citation needed].

Densities can be measured in several ways[citation needed]. A common method, used is the Floor area ratio, using the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. Ratios below 1.5 could be considered low density, and plot ratios above five very high density. Most exurbs are below two, while most city centres are well above five. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more.

City authorities may try to encourage lower densities to reduce infrastructure costs, though some observers note that low densities may not accommodate enough population to provide adequate demand or funding for that infrastructure. In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centres, etc) more viable. However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as ‘town cramming’ and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market led choice[citation needed].

Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five[citation needed]. These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems. The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 1% ridership[citation needed].

The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion.

Some theoreticians[citation needed] speculate that personal rapid transit (PRT) might coax people from their automobiles, and yet effectively serve intermediate densities, but this has not been demonstrated.

Addressing

If house numbering is part of the plan, the risk that the numbering task will end up in the hands of non-professionals can be reduced, saving citizens much lost time looking for addresses later. This is especially important for non grid plan areas with no city-wide addressing standard already in place. Unfortunately addressing is often not even mentioned in urban planning courses.

Suburbanization
Main article: Suburbanization

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

In some countries declining satisfaction with the urban environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city region and help to reduce both congestion along transport routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive commuting. Urban scholar N.J. Slabbert claims that the advent of the Internet has opened the way to “telecommunities” or populations of workers who will no longer commute physically, and that this will greatly revitalize small towns in the 21st century.

Environmental factors
Main article: Environmental planning

Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimise the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure. In Europe this process is known as Sustainability Appraisal.

Arcology seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture, especially landscape architecture, to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things. On a small scale, the eco-village theory has become popular, as it emphasizes a traditional 100-140 person scale for communities[citation needed].

In most advanced urban or village planning models, local context is critical. In many, gardening assumes a central role not only in agriculture but in the daily life of citizens. A series of related movements including green anarchism, eco-anarchism, eco-feminism and Slow Food have put this in a political context as part of a focus on smaller systems of resource extraction, and waste disposal, ideally as part of living machines which do such recycling automatically, just as nature does. The modern theory of natural capital emphasizes this as the primary difference between natural and infrastructural capital, and seeks an economic basis for rationalizing a move back towards smaller village units. A common form of planning that leads to suburban sprawl is single use zoning.

An urban planner is likely to use a number of Quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on a variety of environmental concerns including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. As early as the 1960s, noise pollution was addressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers. The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints.

Process

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the town planner created the plans. A planner is usually skilled in either surveying, engineering or architecture, bringing to the town planning process ideals based around these disciplines. They typically worked for national or local governments.[citation needed]

Changes to the planning process over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. Calls championing for more democratic planning processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level

Developers too have played huge roles in influencing the way development occurs, particularly through project-based planning. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land, designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. The Melbourne Docklands, for example, was largely an initiative pushed by private developers who sought to redevelop the waterfront into a high-end residential and commercial district.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Main article: Environmental planning

Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimise the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure. In Europe this process is known as Sustainability Appraisal.

Arcology seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture, especially landscape architecture, to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things. On a small scale, the eco-village theory has become popular, as it emphasizes a traditional 100-140 person scale for communities[citation needed].

In most advanced urban or village planning models, local context is critical. In many, gardening assumes a central role not only in agriculture but in the daily life of citizens. A series of related movements including green anarchism, eco-anarchism, eco-feminism and Slow Food have put this in a political context as part of a focus on smaller systems of resource extraction, and waste disposal, ideally as part of living machines which do such recycling automatically, just as nature does. The modern theory of natural capital emphasizes this as the primary difference between natural and infrastructural capital, and seeks an economic basis for rationalizing a move back towards smaller village units. A common form of planning that leads to suburban sprawl is single use zoning.

An urban planner is likely to use a number of Quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on a variety of environmental concerns including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. As early as the 1960s, noise pollution was addressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers. The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints.Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development, namely architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level.

Another key role of urban planning is urban renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong's CBD.

Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world’s largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong’s CBD.

History

Urban planning as an organized profession has existed for less than a century, however most settlements and cities have displayed various degrees of forethought and conscious design in their layout and functioning.

As agriculture replaced a nomadic existence, permanent human settlements, and larger settlements began to appear. These early cities became centres for trade, defense, and politics and as centers for distributing the agricultural surplus a settled farming society produces.

Cities laid out with forethought and design permeate antiquity. Perhaps the earliest of these were those of the ancient Mesopotamian and Harrapan civilizations of the third century BCE.

Ur located near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in modern day Iraq and some ancient cities of the Indus Valley in modern day India are perhaps the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities in history. The streets of these early cities were often paved and laid out at right angles in a grid pattern. There was also with a hierarchy of streets (commercial boulevards to small residential alleyways). In Harrapan settlements, archaeological evidence suggests the houses were laid out to protect from noise, odors, and thieves, and had their own wells, and sanitation. Ancient cities often had drainage, large granaries, and well-developed urban sanitation

The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) is widely considered the father of city planning in the West, for his design of Miletus; Alexander commissioned him to lay out Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the Mediterranean world, where regularity was aided in large part by its level site near a mouth of the Nile.

The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan is a central plaza with city services, surrounded by a compact rectilinear grid of streets and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets cross the square grid corner-to-corner, passing through the central square. A river usually flows through the city, to provide water and transport, and carry away sewage, even in sieges.[citation needed] Effectively, many European towns still preserve the essence of these schemes, as in Turin.The Romans had a very logical way of designing their cities. They put all the streets at right angles, set up in a square grid. All the roads were equal in width and length except for two. These two roads formed the center of the grid and intersected in the middle. One went East/West, the other North/South. They were slightly wider than the others. All roads were made of carefully fitted stones and smaller hard packed stones. Bridges were also constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulae. An insulae was the Roman equivalent of a city block. Each insulae was 80 yards square. The land of each insulae was divided up. As the city developed, each insulae would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and would be crisscrossed with back roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a budding new Roman city, but each person had to pay for the building of their own houses. The city was surrounded by a wall to protect the city from invaders and other enemies, and to mark the cities limits. Area outside of the walls and city limits was left for farmland. At the end of each main road, there was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege. Other watchtowers were constructed around the rest of the city’s wall. An aqueduct was built outside of the cities walls. This brought in the water necessary for the cities functioning.

The idea of rational planning collapsed with the idea of the res publica in the European Early Middle Ages. Round a fortress or fortified abbey or next to a Roman nucleus — sometimes itself abandoned— urban growth occurred “like the annular rings of a tree” whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. Since the new center was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal city resurfaced in the Early Renaissance in Florence, where the star-shaped city plan was adapted from the new cannon-resistant star fort. The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of Renaissance urban planning: “The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi— was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city” Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military, communal or spiritual power. Only in ideal cities did a centrally-planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael’s Sposalizio of 1504 (illustration); as built, the unique example of a rationally-planned quattrocento new city center, that of Vigevano, 1493-95, resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading. Filarete’s ideal city, building on hints in Leone Battista Alberti’s De re aedificatoria, was named “Sforzinda” in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a “perfect” Pythagorean figure, the circle, takes no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete’s manuscript.

The true heirs of Greek rational planning were the Muslims, who are thought to have originated the idea of formal zoning (see haram and hima and the more general notion of khalifa, or “stewardship” from which they arise),[citation needed] although modern usage in the West largely dates from the ideas of the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne.

Many cities in Central American civilizations also engineered urban planning in their cities including sewage systems and running water. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with close to 250,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

In developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia) during the last two centuries, planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus. Firstly there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around the turn of the 20th century there began to be a movement for providing people, and factory workers in particular, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities arose and some model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City the world’s first garden cities, in Hertfordshire, UK. However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few thousand residents.

It wasn’t until the 1920s when modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by war destructions led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government housing. Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil.

By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners were coming to realise that the imposition of modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within these planned neighbourhoods. Modernism can be said to have ended in the 1970s when the construction of the cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in many countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the post-modernist era.

Minimally-planned cities still exist. Houston is an example of a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country, without a comprehensive zoning ordinance. Houston does, however, have many of the land use restrictions covered by traditional zoning regulations, such as restrictions on development density and parking requirements, even though specific land uses are not regulated. Moreover, private-sector developers have used subdivision covenants and deed restrictions effectively to create the same kinds of land use restrictions found in most municipal zoning laws. Houston voters have rejected proposals for a comprehensive zoning ordinance three times since 1948. Even without zoning in its traditional sense, metropolitan Houston displays similar land use patterns at the macro scale to regions comparable in age and population that do have zoning, such as Dallas. This suggests that factors outside the regulatory environment, such as the provision of urban infrastructure and methods of financing development, may play a greater role in the way American cities are developed than does zoning.

Sustainable development and Sustainability

Sustainable development and sustainability have become buzzwords in the planning industry, with the recognition that present ways of consumption and living have led to problems like the overuse of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, urban heat islands, pollution, growing inequality in cities, the degradation of human living conditions and human-induced climate change. Planners have, as a result, taken to advocating for the development of sustainable cities

However, the notion of sustainable development can be considered as rather recent and evolving, with many questions surrounding this concept. That said, it is often not difficult to recognise what are ‘unsustainable’ forms of lifestyles, and urban planning is recognised to play a crucial position in the development of sustainable cities.

Stephen Wheeler, in his 1998 article, suggests a definition for sustainable urban development to be as “development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns.” He goes on to suggest a framework that might help all to better understand what a ‘sustainable’ city might look like. These include compact, efficient land use; less automobile use yet with better access; efficient resource use, less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; sustainable economics; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom.

The difficult challenge facing planners comes with the implementation of sustainability visions, policy and programmes, and in the midst of doing so, the need to modify institutions to achieve these goals. This is still being worked out by urban planners.

Aspects of planning

Aesthetics

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

In developed countries there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings Other issues that generate strong debate amongst urban designers are tensions between peripheral growth, increased housing density and planned new settlements. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate.

Successful urban planning considers character, of “home” and “sense of place”, local identity, respect for natural, artistic and historic heritage, an understanding of the “urban grain” or “townscape,” pedestrians and other modes of traffic, utilities and natural hazards, such as flood zones.

Some argue that the medieval piazza and arcade are the most widely appreciated elements of successful urban design, as demonstrated by the Italian cities of Siena and Bologna[citation needed].

While it is rare that cities are planned from scratch, planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term, smart growth.

There are some cities that have been planned from conception, and while the results often don’t turn out quite as planned, evidence of the initial plan often remains. (See List of planned cities)

Safety

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

Historically within the Middle East, Europe and the rest of the Old World settlements were located on higher ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources[citation needed]. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of open space provision.

Extreme weather, flood, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centres. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters.

In recent years, practitioners have also been expected to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with different abilities, practicing the notion of “inclusive design,” to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently to “design-out crime” and to consider “traffic calming” or “pedestrianisation” as ways of making urban life more pleasant.

City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals’ obedience to social rules. The theories often say that psychological pressure develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism.

Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory cites the modernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of environmental determinism, where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas, which are hard for residents to identify with. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder Source

Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the “eyes on the street” concept. By improving ‘natural surveillance’ of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it, and increasing the familiarity of residents, as a collective, residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behaviour.

The “broken-windows” theory argues that small indicators of neglect, such as broken windows and unkempt lawns, promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties. The theory suggests that abandonment causes crime, rather than crime causing abandonment[citation needed].

Some planning methods might help an elite group to control ordinary citizens. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the movement of military troops. In Rome, the Fascists in the 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the elegant town.

Other social theories point out that in Britain and most countries since the 18th century, the transformation of societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difficult adaptation to urban living. These theories emphasize that many planning policies ignore personal tensions, forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual extraneity to their cities. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling “at home” when at home. Often these theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used “standards” that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively unregulated) market.

Slums
Main article: Slums

The rapid urbanization of the last century has resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in the Third World. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development, and many planning theorists and practitioners are calling for increased attention and resources in this area, particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners. When urban planners give their attention to slums, one also have to pay attention to the racial make – up of that area to ensure that racial steering does not occur.

The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance, however more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi’s “Camp of Fire” program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. The “Camp of Fire” program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International, which has programs in Africa, Asia, and South America.

Urban decay
Main article: Urban decay

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair. It is characterized by depopulation, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes.

Urban decay was associated with Western cities, especially North America and parts of Europe during the 1970s and 1980s. During this time period major changes in global economies, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay.

The effects of urban decay run counter to the development patterns found in most cities in Europe and countries outside of North America, where slums are usually located on the outskirts of major metropolitan areas while the city center and inner city retain high real estate values and a steady or increasing population. In contrast, North American cities often experienced an outflux of population to city suburbs or exurbs, as in the case of white flight.

There is no single cause of urban decay, though it may be triggered by a combination of interrelated factors, including urban planning decisions, the development of freeways, suburbanisation, redlining, immigration restrictions and racial discrimination.

Reconstruction and renewal
Main article: Urban Renewal

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area, the proposed Kabul - City of Light Development.

The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul’s Old City area, the proposed Kabul – City of Light Development.

Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners: the area of development is not one for simple modification, nor is it a “blank slate”. Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what, if anything, can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of population; more often than not, people are also still living in these areas, displaced but not removed, and their issues need to be addressed. Historic areas and religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which after decades of civil war and occupation has regions that have literally been reduced to rubble. Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of whatever can be salvaged. Any reconstruction plan proposed, such as Hisham Ashkouri’s City of Light Development, needs to be sensitive to the needs of this community and its existing culture, businesses and needs.

Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs.

Transport
Main article: Transportation Planning

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

There is a direct, well-researched connection between the density of an urban environment, and the need to travel within it[citation needed]. Good quality transport is often followed by development. Development beyond a certain density can quickly overcrowd transport[citation needed].

Good planning attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation. For example, some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and four-lane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks further away[citation needed].

Densities can be measured in several ways[citation needed]. A common method, used is the Floor area ratio, using the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. Ratios below 1.5 could be considered low density, and plot ratios above five very high density. Most exurbs are below two, while most city centres are well above five. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more.

City authorities may try to encourage lower densities to reduce infrastructure costs, though some observers note that low densities may not accommodate enough population to provide adequate demand or funding for that infrastructure. In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centres, etc) more viable. However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as ‘town cramming’ and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market led choice[citation needed].

Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five[citation needed]. These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems. The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 1% ridership[citation needed].

The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion.

Some theoreticians[citation needed] speculate that personal rapid transit (PRT) might coax people from their automobiles, and yet effectively serve intermediate densities, but this has not been demonstrated.

Addressing

If house numbering is part of the plan, the risk that the numbering task will end up in the hands of non-professionals can be reduced, saving citizens much lost time looking for addresses later. This is especially important for non grid plan areas with no city-wide addressing standard already in place. Unfortunately addressing is often not even mentioned in urban planning courses.

Suburbanization
Main article: Suburbanization

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

In some countries declining satisfaction with the urban environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city region and help to reduce both congestion along transport routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive commuting. Urban scholar N.J. Slabbert claims that the advent of the Internet has opened the way to “telecommunities” or populations of workers who will no longer commute physically, and that this will greatly revitalize small towns in the 21st century.

Environmental factors
Main article: Environmental planning

Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimise the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure. In Europe this process is known as Sustainability Appraisal.

Arcology seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture, especially landscape architecture, to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things. On a small scale, the eco-village theory has become popular, as it emphasizes a traditional 100-140 person scale for communities[citation needed].

In most advanced urban or village planning models, local context is critical. In many, gardening assumes a central role not only in agriculture but in the daily life of citizens. A series of related movements including green anarchism, eco-anarchism, eco-feminism and Slow Food have put this in a political context as part of a focus on smaller systems of resource extraction, and waste disposal, ideally as part of living machines which do such recycling automatically, just as nature does. The modern theory of natural capital emphasizes this as the primary difference between natural and infrastructural capital, and seeks an economic basis for rationalizing a move back towards smaller village units. A common form of planning that leads to suburban sprawl is single use zoning.

An urban planner is likely to use a number of Quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on a variety of environmental concerns including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. As early as the 1960s, noise pollution was addressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers. The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints.

Process

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the town planner created the plans. A planner is usually skilled in either surveying, engineering or architecture, bringing to the town planning process ideals based around these disciplines. They typically worked for national or local governments.[citation needed]

Changes to the planning process over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. Calls championing for more democratic planning processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level

Developers too have played huge roles in influencing the way development occurs, particularly through project-based planning. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land, designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. The Melbourne Docklands, for example, was largely an initiative pushed by private developers who sought to redevelop the waterfront into a high-end residential and commercial district.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Process

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the town planner created the plans. A planner is usually skilled in either surveying, engineering or architecture, bringing to the town planning process ideals based around these disciplines. They typically worked for national or local governments.[citation needed]

Changes to the planning process over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. Calls championing for more democratic planning processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level

Developers too have played huge roles in influencing the way development occurs, particularly through project-based planning. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land, designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. The Melbourne Docklands, for example, was largely an initiative pushed by private developers who sought to redevelop the waterfront into a high-end residential and commercial district.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ZONAASI

Teknik pengaturan zonasi adalah berbagai varian dari zoning konvensional yang dikembangkan untuk memberikan keluwesan penerapan aturan zonasi.

Teknik pengaturan zonasi dapat dipilih dari berbagai alternatif dengan mempertimbangkan tujuan pengaturan yang ingin dicapai. Setiap teknik mempunyai karakteristik, tujuan, konsekuensi dan dampak yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu, pemilihannya harus dipertimbangkan dengan hati-hati.

Alternatif Teknik Pengaturan Zonasi

  • Alternatif teknik pengaturan zonasi yang dapat diterapkan antara lain:
  • Bonus/insentive zoning
  • Performance zoning
  • Fiscal zoning
  • Special zoning
  • Exclusionary zoning
  • Contract zoning
  • Negotiated development
  • TDR (Transfer of Development Right)
  • Design/historic preservation
  • Overlay zone
  • Floating zone
  • Flood plain zone
  • Conditional uses
  • Growth control
  • dan teknik lainnya yang dianggap sesuai

Bonus/insentive zoning
Izin peningkatan intensitas dan kepadatan pembangunan (tinggi bangunan, luas lantai) yang diberikan kepada pengembang dengan imbalan penyediaan fasilitas publik (arcade, plaza, pengatapan ruang pejalan, peninggian jalur pejalan atau bawah tanah untuk memisahkan pejalan dan lalu-lintas kendaraan, ruang bongkar-muat off-street untuk mengurangi kemacetan dll) sesuai dengan ketentuan yang berlalu.

Kelemahan: teknik ini dapat menyebabkan bengunan berdiri sendiri di tengah plaza, memutuskan shopping frontage, dll.

Performance zoning
Ketentuan pengaturan pada satu atau beberapa blok peruntukan yang didasarkan pada kinerja tertentu yang ditetapkan. Performace zoning harus diikuti dengan standar kinerja (performance standards) yang mengikat (misalnya tingkat LOS (Level of Service, Tingkat Pelayanan) jalan minimum, tingkat pencemaran maksimum, dll).

Fiscal zoning
Ketentuan/aturan yang ditetapkan pada satu atau beberapa blok peruntukan yang berorientasi kepada peningkatan PAD.

Special zoning
Ketentuan ini dibuat dengan spesifik sesuai dengan karakteristik setempat (universitas, pendidikan, bandar udara) untuk mengurangi konflik antara area ini dan masyarakat sekelilingnya dengan pemanfaatan ruang yang sesuai dengan area tersebut. Umumnya untuk menjaga kualitas lingkungan (ketenangan, kelancaran lalu-lintas dan sebagainya).

Exclusionary zoning
Ketentuan/aturan pada satu/beberapa blok peruntukan yang menyebabkan blok peruntukan tersebut menjadi ekslusif. Ketentuan ini mengandung unsur diskriminasi (misalnya, penetapan luas persil minimal 5000m2 menyebabkan masyarakat berpenghasilan rendah tidak dapat tinggal dalam blok tersebut).

Praktek zoning ini diterapkan pada zona yang mempunyai dampak pencegahan munculnya bangunan rumah bagi masyarakat berpendapatan rendah dan moderat. Ketentuan ini dimotivasi oleh perhatian pada populasi masyarakat tertentu dibandingkan kebutuhan perumahan keseluruhan pada wilayah dimana masyarakat tersebut menjadi bagiannya.

Contract zoning
Ketentuan ini dihasilkan melalui kesepakatan antara pemilik properti dan komisi perencana (Dinas Tata Kota atau TKPRD/BKPRD) atau lembaga legislatif (DPRD) yang dituangkan dalam bentruk kontrak berdasarkan Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata.

Negotiated development
Pembangunan yang dilakukan berdasarkan negosiasi antarstakeholder.

TDR (Transfer of Development Right)
Ketentuan untuk menjaga karakter kawasan setempat. Kompensasi diberikan pada pemilik yang kehilangan hak membangun atau pemilik dapat mentransfer/menjual hak membangunnya (biasanya luas lantai bangunan) kepada pihak lain dalam satu distrik/kawasan.

Design/historic preservation
Ketentuan-ketentuan pemanfaatan ruang dan elemen lainnya (keindahan, tata informasi dll) untuk memelihara visual dan karakter budaya, bangunan dan kawasan masyarakat setempat yang ditetapkan dalam peraturan-perundangan pelestarian.

Overlay zone
Satu atau beberapa zona yang mengacu kepada satu atau beberapa peraturan zonasi (misalnya kawasan perumahan di kawasan yang harus dilestarikan akan merujuk pada aturan perumahan dan aturan pelestarian bangunan/kawasan).

Floating zone
Blok peruntukan yang diambangkan pemanfaatan ruangnya, dan penetapan peruntukannya didsarkan pada kecenderungan perubahannya/perkembangannya, atau sampai ada penelitian mengenai pemanfaatan ruang tersebut yang paling tepat.

Flood plain zone
Ketentuan pemanfaatan ruang pada kawasan rawan banjir untuk mencegah atau mengurangi kerugian.

Conditional uses
Seringkali disebut sebagai pemanfaatan khusus, merupakan izin pemanfaatan ruang yang diberikan pada suatu zona jika kriteria atau kondisi khusus zona tersebut memungkinkan atau sesuai dengan pemanfaatan ruang yang diinginkan

Growth control
Pengendalian ini dilakukan melalui faktor faktor pertumbuhan seperti pembangunan sarana dan prasarana melalui penyediaan infrastruktur yang diperlukan, mengelola faktor ekonomi dan sosial hingga politik

Penerapan Teknik
Teknik pengaturan zonasi yang dipilih diterapkan pada suatu zonasi tertentu di blok tertentu. Dengan pengaturan zonasi yang cukup baik, maka teknik tersebut dapat diterapkan untuk suatu zonasi dimanapun letak zona tersebut. Dengan demikin aturan ini tidak berlaku untuk semua zona yang sejenis.

Contoh penerapan incentive zoning:
1. Untuk suatu zonasi yang tidak bergantung lokasi: “Pengembangan bangunan komersial skala BWK (zonasi K-3) dapat diberikan penambahan luas lantai sebanyak-banyaknya 10% dari luas lantai yang diperkenakan dari aturan yang berlaku apabila menyediakan fasilitas publik sebagai berikut:…….., ……, …….”
2. Untuk zonasi pada blok tertentu: “Pengembangan bangunan komersial skala BWK (zonasi K-3) pada blok 14032-023, 14044.003 dan…., dapat diberikan penambahan luas lantai sebanyak-banyaknya 20% dari aturan yang berlaku apabila menyediakan fasilitas publik sebagai berikut:…….., ……, …….”

Sumber: Modul Zonasi, Materi Pelatihan Tim Teknis Tata Ruang Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 2008

a. Penyediaan RTH Berdasarkan Luas Wilayah
Penyediaan RTH berdasarkan luas wilayah di perkotaan adalah sebagai berikut:

  • ruang terbuka hijau di perkotaan terdiri dari RTH Publik dan RTH privat;
  • proporsi RTH pada wilayah perkotaan adalah sebesar minimal 30% yang terdiri dari 20% ruang terbuka hijau publik dan 10% terdiri dari ruang terbuka hijau privat;
  • apabila luas RTH baik publik maupun privat di kota yang bersangkutan telah memiliki total luas lebih besar dari peraturan atau perundangan yang berlaku, maka proporsi tersebut harus tetap dipertahankan keberadaannya.

Proporsi 30% merupakan ukuran minimal untuk menjamin keseimbangan ekosistem kota, baik keseimbangan sistem hidrologi dan keseimbangan mikroklimat, maupun sistem ekologis lain yang dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan udara bersih yang diperlukan masyarakat, serta sekaligus dapat meningkatkan nilai estetika kota.
Target luas sebesar 30% dari luas wilayah kota dapat dicapai secara bertahap melalui pengalokasian lahan perkotaan secara tipikal sebagaimana ditunjukkan pada lampiran A.

b. Penyediaan RTH Berdasarkan Jumlah Penduduk
Untuk menentukan luas RTH berdasarkan jumlah penduduk, dilakukan dengan mengalikan antara jumlah penduduk yang dilayani dengan standar luas RTH per kapita sesuai peraturan yang berlaku.

Tabel Penyediaan RTH Berdasarkan Jumlah Penduduk


c. Penyediaan RTH Berdasarkan Kebutuhan Fungsi Tertentu
Fungsi RTH pada kategori ini adalah untuk perlindungan atau pengamanan, sarana dan prasarana misalnya melindungi kelestarian sumber daya alam, pengaman pejalan kaki atau membatasi perkembangan penggunaan lahan agar fungsi utamanya tidak teganggu.
RTH kategori ini meliputi: jalur hijau sempadan rel kereta api, jalur hijau jaringan listrik tegangan tinggi, RTH kawasan perlindungan setempat berupa RTH sempadan sungai, RTH sempadan pantai, dan RTH pengamanan sumber air baku/mata air.

Sumber: Pedoman Penyediaan dan Pemanfaatan RTH di Kawasan Perkotaan, Direktorat Jenderal Penataan Ruang

Keberadaan ruang terbuka hijau (RTH)
di setiap kota memiliki tiga fungsi penting yaitu ekologis,
sosial-ekonomi dan evakuasi. Dalam UU No. 26 tahun 2007 tentang
Penataan Ruang disebutkan, jumlah RTH di setiap kota harus sebesar 30
persen dari luas kota tersebut. Arsitek
Landsekap/ Majelis Ikatan Arsitektur Landsekap Indonesia (IALI) Ning
Purnomohadi dalam program Selamat Pagi Nusantara di TVRI, Rabu (2/7)
mengatakan, RTH perkotaan adalah bagian dari ruang-ruang terbuka suatu
wilayah perkotaan yang diisi oleh tumbuhan, tanaman dan vegetasi.

Fungsi ekologis RTH yaitu dapat meningkatkan kualitas

air tanah, mencegah banjir, mengurangi polusi udara dan pengatur iklim
mikro. Fungsi lainnya yaitu sosial-ekonomi untuk memberikan fungsi
sebagai ruang interaksi sosial, sarana rekreasi dan sebagai tetenger
(landmark) kota.
“Sementara evakuasi berfungsi antara lain untuk tempat pengungsian saat terjadi bencana alam,” terang Ning Purnomohadi.Dengan

keberadaan RTH yang ideal, maka tingkat kesehatan warga kota yang
bersangkutan juga menjadi baik. RTH dapat mengurangi kadar polutan
seperti timah hitam dan timbal yang berbahaya bagi kesehatan manusia.
“Saat ini, banyak anak di perkotaan yang menderita autis

yang disebabkan antara lain karena tingginya kadar polutan di daerah
perkotaan,” jelas Ning Purnomohadi.
“Sifat

polutan berbahaya tersebut melayang-layang diudara dengan ketinggian
kurang dari satu meter dari tanah, maka tidak aneh jika banyak
berdampak terhadap kesehatan anak-anak,” imbuhnya.
Ning Purnomohadi menuturkan, ketentuan luasan 30 persen

RTH di setiap perkotaan merupakan hasil kesepakatan dari Konferensi
Tingkat Tinggi (KTT) Bumi di Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1992) dan
dipertegas lagi pada KTT Johannesberg, Afrika Selatan 10 tahun.
Namun tampaknya bagi kota-kota di Indonesia, hal ini

akan sulit terrealisir akibat terus adanya tekanan pertumbuhan dan
kebutuhan sarana dan prasarana kota, seperti pembangunan bangunan
gedung, pengembangan dan penambahan jalur jalan yang terus meningkat
serta peningkatan jumlah penduduk.
Keberadaan RTH seringkali masih dikalahkan oleh berbagai

kepentingan lain yang lebih “menguntungkan” dan cenderung berorientasi
pada pembangunan fisik untuk kepentingan ekonomi. Akibatnya, kebutuhan
ruang (khususnya RTH) untuk berlangsungnya fungsi ekologis kurang
terakomodasi, dan berdampak pada permasalahan manajemen pengelolaan RTH.
“Apalagi untuk kota seperti Jakarta, dimana tanah

permeternya harganya sudah berjuta-juta, sehingga orang lebih memilih
untuk dibangun daripada untuk ruang terbuka hijau,” ucap Ning
Purnomohadi.
Untuk

merealisasikan keberadaan RTH yang mumpuni di perkotaan Indonesia
diperlukan komitmen kuat dari semua pihak baik pemerintah pusat,
pemerintah daerah, masyarakat dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya. Upaya
tersebut antara lain mendorong permukiman melalui bangunan vertikal.
“Dengan tinggal di permukiman yang vertikal, maka akan

menggunakan lahan yang lebih sedikit, sehingga lahan lainnya dapat
dimanfaatkan untuk RTH,” kata Ning Purnomohadi. (rnd)

 

Oleh : Ir. Tri Cahyono MSc, Dosen Fakultas Teknik UI

 

Keterkaitan Antara Sistem Transportasi dan Pengembangan Lahan.

Sistem transportasi dan pengembangan lahan (land development) saling kait mengkait. Di dalam sistem transportasi, tujuan dari perencanaan adalah menyediakan fasilitas untuk pergerakan penumpang dan barang dari satu tempat ke tempat lain atau dari berbagai pemanfaatan lahan. Sedangkan di sisi pengembangan lahan, tujuan dari perencanaan adalah untuk tercapainya fungsi bangunan dan harus menguntungkan. Acapkali kedua tujuan tersebut menimbulkan konflik. Hal inilah yang menjadi asumsi mendasar dari analisis dampak lalu lintas untuk menjembatani kedua tujuan di atas, atau dengan kata lain: Proses perencanaan transportasi dan pengembangan lahan mengikat satu sama lainnya. Pengembangan lahan tidak akan terjadi tanpa sistem transportasi, sedangkan sistem transportasi tidak mungkin disediakan apabila tidak melayani kepentingan ekonomi atau aktivitas pembangunan.

Hubungan antara Fasilitas Transportasi dan Perubahan Tata Guna Lahan

Hubungan antara fasilitas transportasi dengan pengembangan lahan secara skematik dapat dilihat pada gambar 1.1.

clip_image001

Gambar 1.1

 

Hubungan ini memperlihatkan bahwa setiap upaya peningkatan fasilitas transportasi akan berdampak terhadap perubahan tataguna lahan apabila tidak ada upaya pengendalian. Pengendalian ini sangat penting agar upaya peningkatan fasilitas transportasi dapat bermanfaat dan berdayaguna seoptimal mungkin. Aksesibilitas memegang peran penting bagi para pengembang lahan. Acapkali justru para pengembang lahan yang menciptakan aksesibilitas ke lokasi yang dikembangkan agar kepentingan investasi dapat terwujud. Pembatasan yang kaku terhadap perubahan tataguna lahan akan sulit dilakukan mengingat sifat manusia dan yang dinamis. Untuk ini suatu keseimbangan antara perubahan tataguna lahan dan fasilitas transportasi perlu dilakukan. Gambar 1.2 memperlihatkan ilustrasi upaya penyeimbangan tataguna lahan dengan fasilitas transportasi.

Gambar 1.2.

clip_image003

Beberapa hal yang mempengaruhi perubahan lahan antara lain sebagai berikut :

  • Kebijaksanaan pemerintah baik tingkat nasional maupun daerah
  • Perubahan pendapatan keluarga
  • Perubahan preferensi keluarga dan keinginan-keinginan individual
  • Teknologi transportasi dan struktur biaya transportasi
  • Perubahan sistem transportasi
  • Tingkat pelayanan yang disediakan oleh sistem transportasi

Perencanaan Transportasi Versus Perencanaan Tapak

Perencanaan transportasi secara tradisional mengidentifikasi kebutuhan transportasi dari suatu pola tata guna lahan yang ada dan yang direncanakan pada masa datang. Berdasarkan basis tata guna lahan, maka melalui empat tahapan proses perencanaan diproyeksikan kebutuhan fasilitas tranportasi yang akan mendukung aktivitas suatu . Walaupun demikian keluaran perencanaan transportasi tidak bersifat detail seperti kinerja simpang, efek pengembangan lahan utama dalam suatu zona tidak teridentifikasi.

 

Bangkitan Lalu Lintas dan Bangkitan Perjalanan

Bangkitan lalulintas dan bangkitan perjalanan secara terminologi berbeda arti. Bangkitan lalulintas (traffic generation) bangkitan pergerakan dalam satuan kendaraan yang timbul akibat sesuatu aktivitas tataguna lahan. Sedangkan bangkitan perjalanan (trip generation) merupakan bangkitan orang di dalam kepentingan analisis di dalam perencanaan transportasi . Apabila di dalam perencanaan perjalanan menggunakan kendaraan pribadi telah diperkirakan, maka dengan mengalikan nilai okupansi penumpang rata-rata di dalam kendaraan akan didapatkan bangkitan lalulintas.

Aksesibilitas

Sistem transportasi merupakan elemen dasar insfrastruktur yang mempengaruhi pola perkembangan . Pengaruh berupa : Perubahan tingkat pelayanan. Perjalanan ke pusat dari suatu daerah pemukiman tertentu berubah dari waktu ke waktu. Akibat pertumbuhan penduduk, maka kebutuhan perjalanan semakin meningkat yang pada gilirannya menyebabkan kemacetan lalu lintas. aksesibilitas atau tingkat pelayanan ke pusat menjadi menurun yang akhirnya merubah pola perkembangan . Pusat menjadi tidak menarik lagi dan aktifitas bergeser mendekati daerah pinggiran . Akhirnya terjadi perubahan daerah pemasaran akibat aktivitas dan meningkatnya waktu perjalanan.

Proses Perencanaan Lokasi

Perencanaan lokasi (site planning) dan proses perancangan (design) pada umumnya dimulai dari keputusan mengenai ukuran dan bentuk bangunan serta posisinya pada suatu lahan. Peletakan bangunan biasanya berdasarkan alasan alasan estetika dan visual. Peletakan tempat parkir dan jalan-jalan sirkulasinya dirancang kemudian di sekitar bangunan. Akhirnya lokasi pintu masuk dan pintu keluar baru ditetapkan. Perbedaan awal pandangan antara arsitek bangunan (pada umumnya) dan traffic engineer (kalaupun ada). Arsitek seialu berorientasi pada bangunan terlebih dahulu, sedangkan traffic engineer berorientasi pada sejauh mana kondisi kinerja lalu lintas pada jalan di sekitar lahan dikaitkan dengan penempatan akses masuk dan keluar. Kurangnya perhatian terhadap hubungan tataletak bangunan dan akses dapat menyebabkan masalah-masalah sebagai berikut:

  • Kemacetan di dalam lokasi lahan akibat kapasitas jalan sirkulasi kurang memadai serta konfigurasi parkir yang kurang mendukung
  • Kemacetan pada sistem jalan umum di luar lahan akibat aktivitas yang terjadi di dalam lahan itu sendiri
  • Kemungkinan timbulnya kecelakaan lalulintas akibat tidak terkendalinya konflik arus lalulintas
  • Keterbatasan fieksibilitas untuk penyesuaian rancangan atau perubahan sistem pengoperasian.
  • Aktivitas Pengembangan Lahan
  • Kurang memadai kapasitas akses
Aktivitas Utama Detail Penggunaan (contoh)
Retail Makanan/Non makanan

Satu unit toko/sejumlah toko

Pusat penjualan tanaman

Pompa bensin

Usaha (employment) Perkantoran

Kawasan usaha (business park)

Kawasan Industri (industrial estate)

Pergudangan (warehousing)

Perumahan (residential) Perumahan pribadi

Apartmen

Panti/tempat penampungan

Pendidikan Sekolah (, SMP, dan SMU)

Universitas/Perguruan Tinggi

Pusat kursus/Balai pelatihan

Hotel dan Restoran Hotel

Motel

Restoran

Kesehatan Rumah sakit

Praktek Dokter

Puskemas

Rekreasi Olahraga

hiburan

Bioskop

Pusat kesenian

 

Sebelum memulai analisis dampak lalu lintas pertama kali kita harus mengenali aktivitas-aktivitas yang dapat membangkitkan perjalanan. Dengan mengenali deskripsi tataguna lahan, maka kita dapat mengetahui perkiraan atraktif bangunan.

Di dalam suatu pengembangan lahan dapat saja beberapa aktivitas digabung menjadi tataguna lahan campuran.

Pemahaman terhadap pengembangan lahan mutlak diketahui pada awal analisis. Deskripsi yang perlu diketahui antara lain:

Æ Aktivitas campuran penggunaan lahan;

Æ Ukuran pengembangan;

Æ Tempat dan bentuk lokasi;

Æ Jumlah tenaga kerja;

Æ Akses;

Æ Jam pengoperasian;

Bentuk Pelayanan

Æ Tahapan Pengembangan

Ukuran pengembangan, lokasi dan jumlah tenaga kerja merupakan variabel sebagai basis estimasi bangkitan perjalanan (terminologi yang lebih tepat adalah tarikan perjalanan). Walaupun demikian jumlah tenaga kerja adalah variabel tersulit didapat mengingat pada saat perencanaan hanya ukuran dan lokasi pengembangan saja yang paling mungkin didapat.

Pengembangan lahan yang sudah ada (existing use) merupakan informasi yang paling penting pada perencanaan perluasan. Dampak lalu lintas bangunan yang ada dapat diukur langsung dan dapat dijadikan pembanding. Walaupun demikian besaran bangungan dan perilaku pengunjung akan berbeda. Hal ini disebabkan terdapat kemungkinan perpidahan pengunjung dari bangunan lama ke bangunan baru. Bangkitan pengunjung baru secara relatif tidak sebesar sewaktu bangunan lama pertama kali dioperasikan. Dari semua perencanaan tampak penerapan akses sangat penting dan harus diperhatikan dari awal perencanaan.

Æ Prediksi Bangkitan Perjalanan

Hal-hal yang perlu dikonsiderasikan :

Ukuran bangkitan perjalanan yang digunakan adalah bangkitan kendaraan dan bukan bangkitan perjalanan individu orang sebagaimana diprediksi di dalam perencanaan . Bangkitan perjalanan individu yang tidak menggunakan kendaraan pribadi secara tidak langsung tetap diperhatikan dengan penyediaan fasilitas pendukung angkutan umum seperti jalur pejalan kaki dan tempat menunggu bus (bus shelter). Hal ini dilakukan dengan asumsi bahwasanya kendaraan pribadi merupakan kontribusi terbesar untuk timbulnya konflik baru yang pada gilirannya menimbulkan dampak bagi lingkungan sekitarnya.

Hal-hal yang harus dikonsider antara lain:

Æ Waktu dimana lalu lintas pada jaringan jalan dalam keadaan arus terpadat;

Æ Waktu dimana lalu lintas yang menuju atau dari suatu pengembangan dalam keadaan terbesar;

Æ Bagaimana hubungan antara kedua waktu di atas terhadap jaringan jalan maupun di dalam lokasi pengembangan;

Æ Apakah terdapat variasi musiman baik pada jaringan jalan maupun aktivitas di dalam lokasi pengembangan;

Æ Bangkitan perjalanan pada saat tidak sibuk (off peak) kalau dimungkinkan karena dibutuhkan untuk analisis dampak lingkungan secara keseluruhan (standar studi Amdal).

Definisi satu kali perjalanan adalah satu kali perjalanan kelokasi pengembangan atau satu kali perjalanan dari lokasi pengembangan. Penggunaan perjalanan 2 arah (datang dan pergi) harus tidak dipergunakan karena terminologi ini harus dinyatakan sebagai 2 perjalanan.

Metode Perkiraan Bangkitan Perjalanan

Terdapat 4 metode didalam memperkirakan bangkitan perjalanan, yaitu:

Æ Menggunakan prinsip-prinsip utama (first principles);

Æ Menggunakan persamaan (formulae);

Æ Menggunakan model kompleks (complex models);

Æ Melakukan perbandingan dengan mengembangkan yang sudah ada dan mirip dengan yang direncanakan (comparison method).

 

Prinsip-prinsip Utama

Metode ini membuat asumsi-asumsi dasar dimana bangkitan perjalanan diperkirakan terjadi seperti: kapan jam sibuk terjadi, berapa banyak pekerja akan datang dan pergi dengan menggunakan kendaraan pribadi, berapa banyak pengunjung akan datang dan pergi dengan menggunakan kendaraan pribadi serta berapa nilai okupansi kendaraan yang datang ke lokasi pengembangan. Metode ini sangat tidak akurat, tetapi sangat berguna untuk memeriksa hasil dari metode-metode lainnya.

Persamaan

Penelitian-penelitian dapat menghasilkan suatu formulasi bangkitan perjalanan dengan menggunakan parameter-parameter tertentu seperti luas bangunan, jumlah pekerja dan lain sebagainya. Penggunaan persamaan ini harus sedikit hati-hati mengingat kondisi suatu daerah dimana penelitian tersebut dilakukan belum tentu sama dengan daerah dimana analisis dampak lalu lintas akan dilakukan.

Model Kompleks

Sangat dimungkinkan untuk melakukan studi analisis dampak lalu lintas menggunakan model kompleks berdasarkan suatu program komputer seperti land use transportation model. Model ini akan menghasilkan sebaran perjalanan serta pembebanan lalu lintas. Formula bangkitan perjalanan pada umumnya sudah terdapat di dalam model, walaupun demikian penggunaan model ini sering kurang akurasi seperti penetapan zona analisis serta asumsi-asumsi didalamnya, mengingat model ini pada umumnya digunakan untuk perencanaan transportasi .

Studi Banding

Metode ini paling sering digunakan, khususnya untuk pengembangan berskala lokal. Studi banding ini dapat dilakukan secara langsung dengan melakukan survai pada objek yang sudah ada dan mirip dengan objek yang akan dikembangkan. Selain itu studi banding dapat dilakukan oleh instasi lain (di Amerika oleh Institution of Traffic Engineer, di Inggris oleh Kumpulan data yang dihimpun oleh konsultan-konsultan dan dihimpun dalam database TRICS).

Tabel berikut Memperlihatkan contoh bangkitan perjalanan dikaitkan dengan jenis aktivitas tata guna lahan.

Tabel Besaran dan unitisasi bangkitan perjalanan (Stover dan Koepke, 1983)

Jenis

Tataguna Lahan

Jenis Pengembangan Bangkitan Per Hari
Perumahan Apartmen

Kondominium

Komonitas orang tua

5,7 per unit

5,1 per unit

3,3 per unit

Institusi Pendidikan tinggi

Sekolah menengah

Sekolah dasar

Rumah sakit

Perpustakaan

Bangunan pemerintah

2,2 per mahasiswa

1,3 per siswa

1,0 per siswa

9,4 per tempat tidur

58,4 per pegawai

64,6 per 1.000 kaki persegi

Komersial Pusat perbelanjaan (regional)

Pusat perbelanjaan (lokal)

Perkantoran

Bank

Bengkel mobil

315 per netto are

949 per netto are

15 per 100 kaki persegi

43 per pegawai

57 per pegawai

Industri Industri aneka

Kawasan industri

Gudang

79 per netto are

64 per netto are

81 per netto are

 

Unitisasi untuk pengukuran bangkitan perjalanan lalu lintas harus memenuhi kriteria sebagai berikut:

Æ Fungsional, berkaitan dengan volume lalu lintas yang dibangkitkan;

Æ Relatif mudah didapatkan dan diukur;

Æ Menyediakan nilai-nilai yang konsisten.

 

Sedangkan masalah akurasi data sangat tergantung dari hal-hal sebagai berikut:

Æ Usia dari data;

Æ Variasi harian;

Æ Variasi lokasi;

Æ Lalu lintas yang datang sejenak ke lokasi karena kebutuhan lokasi tersebut pada jalur rute perjalanan sehari-hari oleh yang bersangkutan (passer traffic);

Æ Penggunaan lahan untuk berbagai bentuk usaha;

Æ Okupansi rata-rata kendaraan;

Æ Nilai variabilitas (minimum, maksimum, rata-rata, variasi standar);

Æ Jumlah sampel.

Contoh Soal

Sebuah toko serba ada berikut swalayan dibangun terletak berseberangan dengan pusat perbelanjaan. Luas toko adalah 20.000 meter persegi GLA (Gross Lease Area). Diperkirakan setiap 100 meter persegi GLA menimbulkan bangkitan perjalanan pada jam sibuk sebesar 6 kendaraan. Diperkirakan 25% pengunjung datang dari pusat perbelanjaan diseberangnya

Jawab:

Jumlah perjalanan pada jam sibuk = 6 x 20.000/100 = 1.200 perjalanan;

Bangkitan perjalanan baru ke toko serba ada = 0,75 x 1.200 = 900 perjalanan;

Bila diasumsikan kendaraan yang datang sebanding dengan kendaraan yang keluar, maka pada jam sibuk bangkitan yang timbul akibat toko serba ada adalah :

kendaraan datang = 0,5 x 900 = 450 kendaraan dan kendaraan keluar = 450 kendaraan;

Akibatnya didalam analisis dampak lalu lintas jumlah 450 kendaraan yang datang dan keluar dijadikan basis untuk melihat sejauh mana fasilitas infrastruktur jalan yang ada masih dapat menampung tambahan lalu lintas dan bagaimana penempatan pintu-pintu masuk dan keluar serta sirkulasi dan tempat parkir yang harus disediakan.

Analisis Lalu Lintas

Hal-hal Yang Perlu Diperhatikan

Di dalam analisis dampak lalu lintas terdapat tiga hal yang harus di analisis. Pertama, analisis lalu lintas eksternal yang melihat sejauh mana dampak tambahan lalu lintas akibat pengembangan lahan baru terhadap sistem jaringan yang ada. Kedua, analisis titik-titik akses yang melihat sejauh mana titik-titik akses dipilih sehingga memberikan dampak negatif terkecil terhadap lalu lintas eksternal. Ketiga, analisis lalu lintas internal meliputi analisis sirkulasi jalan internal dan kebutuhan tempat parkir kendaraan.

Analisis Lalu Lintas Eksternal

Perencanaan lalu lintas eksternal melibatkan dua komponen, yaitu :

Æ Lalu lintas berorientasi ke lokasi (site-oriented traffic), yaitu lalu lintas dimana memiliki asal atau tujuan ke lokasi yang direncanakan.

Æ Lalu lintas tidak berorientasi ke lokasi (non site-oriented traffic), yaitu lalu lintas yang tidak memiliki asal atau tujuan ke lokasi tetapi melalui jalan dimuka atau disekitar lokasi yang direncanakan (through traffic)

Site-Oriented Traffic

Site-Oriented Traffic relatif lebih mudah diperkirakan dibandingkan dengan Non Site-Oriented Traffic karena hal-hal sebagai berikut:

Æ Aktivitas penggunaan lahan diketahui dari perencanaan arsitek dan pemilik bangunan;

Æ Jumlah lalu lintas yang diperkirakan dapat ditentukan secara langsung sesuai dengan metode-metode tertentu;

Æ Sebaran lalu lintas dapat diperkirakan karena terbatas pada jaringan jalan di sekitar lokasi.

Non Site-Oriented Traffic

Non Site-Oriented Traffic merupakan arus lalu lintas menerus yang melalui lokasi pengembangan. Asal tujuan lalu lintas jelas tidak diketahui pada level studi analisis dampak lalu lintas. Perkiraan asal tujuan lalu lintas didapat dari studi perencanaan transportasi berskala makro. Di dalam studi analisis dampak lalu lintas pencatatan lalu lintas menerus dilakukan dengan survai primer mencatat langsung besarnya lalu lintas saat ini dan dengan faktor perumbuhan dapat diperkirakan lalu lintas pada saat dibangun direncanakan di buka.

Sebaran dan Pembebanan Lalu Lintas

Metode Sebaran dan Pembebanan Lalu Lintas

Untuk Site-Oriented Traffic, metode sebaran lalu lintas (traffic distribution) dan pembebanan lalu lintas (traffic assignment) dapat dilakukan secara bersamaan. Di dalam analisis dampak lalu lintas, metode sebaran lalu lintas dapat dilakukan beberapa cara, antara lain: Direct Knowledge; Isochrones; Gravity Model; Oppurtunity Model.

 

Direct Knowledge

Salah satu contoh aplikasi ini adalah relokasi kantor, dengan dasar pengetahuan tempat tinggal karyawan, maka untuk kantor baru sebaran dan pembebanan lalu lintas dapat langsung diketahui. Hal ini juga dapat dilakukan untuk perluasan suatu usaha seperti pusat perbelanjaan. dengan melakukan survai pada kondisi eksisting, maka sebaran dan pembebanan lalu lintas akibat pertambahan lalu lintas dapat dianggap sama dengan kondisi saat ini.

Isochrones

Pendekatan ini sering digunakan dengan mengembangkan Primary Market Area (PTA) yang disesuaikan dengan waktu perjalanan rata-rata. Sebagai contoh Tabel berikut memperlihatkan PTA untuk berbagai aktivitas tata guna lahan.

Tabel Primary Trade Area untuk Berbagai Tata guna Lahan

Jenis Aktivitas Tataguna Lahan Waktu Tempuh Maksimum PTA
Pusat Perbelanjaan Regional 20-30 menit
Pusat Perbelanjaan 15-20 menit
Pertokoan Lokal 10 menit
Kawasan Industri 30 menit

 

Contoh Soal

Direncanakan toko serba ada berikut pasar swalayan sesuai contoh pada besaran dan unitisasi bangkitan perjalanan, akan dibangun di lokasi seperti terlihat pada gambar 5.1a berikut :

clip_image004

Secara singkat analisis dampak lalulintas dilakukan dengan tahapan sebagai berikut:

1. Bangkitan lalulintas pada jam sibuk sudah diperkirakan pada contoh soal pada besaran dan unitisasi bangkitan perjalanan dan didapat 450 kendaraan menuju ke lokasi dan 450 kendaraan meninggalkan lokasi.

2. Kemudian, dicari PTA (primary trade area), yaitu waktu tempuh sekitar 15 hingga 20 menit yang kemudian digambarkan isochome-nya seperti terlihat pada Gambar 5.1 b.

clip_image005

3. Bila persentase sebaran lalulintas dianggap linier dengan jumiah penduduk, maka dengan diketahuinya jumiah penduduk pada zone-zone analisisnya di dalam isochorne-nya persentase sebaran lalulintas juga akan diketahui seperti terlihat pada berikut :

Tabel Perkiraan Persentase Sebaran Lalulintas (Contoh Soal)

Zone Analisis Jumiah Penduduk Persentase Sebaran Lalulintas
A 1 0.000 jiwa 25,00%
B 5.000 jiwa 12,50%
C 7.500 jiwa 18,75%
D 5.000 jiwa 12,50%
E 12.500 jiwa 31,25%
Total 40.000 jiwa 100,00%

 

4. Sebaran lalulintas kemudian dicari dengan mendistribusikan ke zone-zone analisis jumiah total bangkitan lalulintas seperti terlihat pada berikut. Kemudian dibebankan ke dalam sistem jaringan jalan seperti terlihat pada Gambar 5.1c.

clip_image007

 

Tabel Sebaran Lalulintas Toko Serba & Pasar Swalayan (Contoh Soal).

Zone Analisis PersentaseSebaran Lalulintas Volume DatangLokasi Pada JamSibuk Volume KeluarLokasi Pada JamSibuk

 

A 25,00% 1 1 3 kendaraan 1 1 3 kendaraan
B 12,50% 56 kendaraan 56 kendaraan
C 18,75% 84 kendaraan 84 kendaraan
D 12,50% 56 kendaraan 56 kendaraan
E 31,25% 141 kendaraan 141 kendaraan
Total 100,00% 450 kendaraan 450 kendaraan

 

Dengan menambahkan volume arus menerus (through traffic), maka dapat diukur kinerja simpang maupun ruas di sekitar lokasi apabila perbedaan sebelum dan sesudah ditambah bangkitan lalu lintas akibat pengembangan lahan cukup besar di atas kapasitas, maka harus dilakukan upaya-upaya perbaikan.

Gravity Model

Aplikasi Gravity Model sama dengan proses yang umum dilakukan untuk sebaran perjalanan pada perencanaan transportasi . Persamaan umum adalah sebagai berikut:

Xij = aPj Tijb

Dimana

Xij = proporsi perjalanan (dalam satuan kendaraan) dari zona I (zona lokasi pengembangan) ke zona

Pj = proporsi dari zona j

Tij = waktu tempuh/jarak/biaya antar zona I dan j

a,b = koefisien distribusi ( b selalu negatif, dan nilai sebesar –2 pada umumnya terlalu rendah.

Model

Model ini merupakan model yang kompleks dimana semua efek alternatif pengembangan diperhatikan. Salah satu aspek yang menarik adalah perencanaan pusat perbelanjaan. Bangkitan perjalanan (dan lalulintas) pada shopping model yang digunakan oleh pengembang retail pada dasarnya berbasis aspek perputaran uang (financial turnover) dan bukan perjalanan. Di dalam model ini perlu dikaji hubungan antara perputaran uang dengan perjalanan khususnya yang berkaitan dengan pusat perbelanjaan.

 

Format Analisis Dampak Lalu lintas

Kapan Suatu Pengembangan Harus Melakukan Analisis Dampak Lalulintas ?

Di Indonesia pengaturan analisis dampak lalulintas belum sebaku analisis dampak lingkungan (Amdal). Di DKI Jakarta acapkaii analisis dampak lalulintas dijadikan bagian dari analisis dampak lingkungan, khususnya sewaktu membahas aspek transportasi.

Tidak semua pengembangan harus melakukan kajian analisis dampak lalulintas, khususnya pengembang berskala kecil. Permasalahan definisi skala kecil perlu ditetapkan. Sedangkan skala yang sangat besar sehingga merupakan di dalam mungkin harus dilakukan suatu studi makro terlebih dahulu (perencanaan transportasi ) sebelum masuk ke kajian analisis dampak lalulintas untuk unit-unit bangunan di dalamnya.

“Warrant”Analisis Dampak Lalulintas di Inggris

Sebagai ilustrasi di lnggris telah dibuat warrant untuk kajian analisis dampak lalulintas (TUE, 1997), yaitu:

pengembangan perumahan yang melebihi 200 unit bangunan kawasan niaga dengan gross floor area (GFA) melebihi 5.000 meter persegi pergudangan dengan GFA melebihi 10.000 meter persegi pertokoan dengan G FA melebihi 1 000 meter persegi 100 perjalanan (kendaraan) masuk dan keluar pada jam sibuk ke suatu bangunan atau bangunan dengan memiliki petak parkir untuk 100 kendaraan atau lebih dengan akses tunggal ke jalan umum terdekat.

Laporan Analisis Dampak Lalulintas

Laporan analisis dampak lalulintas (modifikasi dari TUE,1997) setidak-tidaknya berisi hal sebagai berikut:

1. Ringkasan Non-Teknis, berisi resume non teknis mengenai deskripsi pengembangan dan proyeksi lalulintas.

2. Kondisi Saat lni, berisi deskripsi keadaan lalulintas saat ini termasuk juga fasilitas infrastruktur transportasi di sekitar lokasi, manajemen lalulintas, fasilitas angkutan umum dan kebijakan transportasi yang diterapkan oleh pemerintah daerah setempat (seperti retribusi parkir dan lain sebagainya).

3. Proposal Pengembangan, berisi deskripsi bangunan yang direncanakan dibangun dengan semua aspeknya seperti koefisien dasar bangunan, luas bangunan dan jumiah petak parkir.

4. Bangkitan Lalu lintas, berisi kuantifikasi perkiraan bangkitan lalulintas yang timbul bedasarkan suatu metode yang digunakan. Perkiraan ini harus menunjukan bangkitan lalulintas per hari dan pada jam sibuk (baik jam sibuk lalulintas di jalan maupun jam sibuk di dalam lokasi). Perkiraan ini meliputi kondisi pada hari kerja dan hari libur (khususnya yang dapat membangkitkan lalulintas pada hari libur). Apabila terdapat tahapan pengembangan juga harus dikaji bangkitan lalu lintasnya.

5. Sebaran Lalulintas, berisi deskripsi daerah pengaruhnya dan konsiderasinya, identifikasi jenis-jenis perjalanan (perjalanan utama dan perjalanan bukan utama), identifikasi sistem jaringan jalan dan zona analisisnya yang diakhiri dengan kuantifikasi sesuai bangkitan lalulintas dan waktu pengamatan yang dibahas pada butir 4 di atas.

6. Pembebanan Jaringan Jalan, berisi antara lain identifikasi rute-rute lalulintas utama, pembahasan konflik pada simpang-simpang terdekat dan titik-titi akses.

7. Upaya Penanggulangan. berisi usulan penanggulangan apabila pembebanan lalu lintas menyebabkan kinerja jaringan jalan menjadi buruk serta tahun target pengujiannya (sewaktu bangunan dioperasikan secara penuh atau tahapan apabila pengembang melakukannya).

8. Dampak Sistem Jaringan Jalan, berisi kajian dari perubahan detail rancangan, apakah terdapat kondisi yang tidak memenuhi standar, aspek-aspek keselamatan lalulintas dan fasilitas angkutan umum serta pejalan kaki.

9. Sirkulasi Internal, berisi rancangan sirkulasi internal, titik-titik akses ke lokasi serta rancangan tempat parkir dan fasilitas menaikan dan menurunkan barang serta fasilitas untuk kondisi darurat.

Transportation planning is the field involved with the siting of transportation facilities (generally streets, highways, sidewalks, bike lanes and public transport lines).

Transportation planning historically has followed the Rational Planning model of Defining Goals and Objectives, Identifying Problems, Generating Alternatives, Evaluating Alternatives, and Developing the Plan. Other models for planning include Rational actor, Satisficing, Incremental planning, Organizational process, and Political bargaining. However, planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of behavioral psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles and use public transport instead. The role of the transport planner is shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through integrated transport policies

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom transport planning has traditionally been a branch of civil engineering. In the 1950s and 1960s it was generally believed that the motor car was the future of transport with public transport playing only a marginal role. The role of the transport planner was to “predict and provide” – to predict future transport demand and provide the network for it, which usually involved building more roads.

The publication of Planning Policy Guidance 13 in 1994 (revised in 2001), followed by A New Deal for Transport in 1998 and the white paper Transport Ten Year Plan 2000 indicated an increasing belief that unrestrained growth in road traffic was neither desirable nor feasible. The worries are threefold: concerns about congestion, concerns about the effect of road traffic on the environment (both natural and built) and concerns that an emphasis on road transport discriminates against vulnerable groups in society such as the poor, the elderly and the disabled.

These documents signalled a new approach based on integration:

  • integration within and between different types of transport
  • integration with the environment
  • integration with land use planning
  • integration with policies for education, health and wealth creation.

This attempt to reverse decades of underinvestment in the transport system has resulted in a severe shortage of transport planners. It was estimated in 2003 that 2,000 new planners would be required by 2010 to avoid jeopardising the success of the Transport Ten Year Plan.

During 2006 the Transport Planning Society defined the key purpose of transport planning as

to plan, design, deliver, manage and review transport, balancing the needs of society, the economy and the environment.

The following key roles must be performed by transport planners:

  • take account of the social, economic and environmental context of their work
  • understand the legal, regulatory policy and resource framework within which they work
  • understand and create transport policies, strategies and plans that contribute to meeting social, economic and environmental needs
  • design the necessary transport projects, systems and services
  • understand the commercial aspects of operating transport systems and services
  • know about and apply the relevant tools and techniques
  • must be competent in all aspects of management, in particular communications, personal skills and project management.

United States

Transportation planning in the United States is in the midst of a shift similar to that taking place in the United Kingdom, away from the singular goal of moving vehicular traffic and towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands which streets, roads, and highways pass through (“the context”). This new approach, known as Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS), seeks to balance the need to move vehicles efficiently and safely with other desirable outcomes, including historic preservation, environmental sustainability, and the creation of vital public spaces.

The initial guiding principles of CSS came out of the 1998 “Thinking Beyond the Pavement” conference as a means to describe and foster transportation projects that preserve and enhance the natural and built environments, as well as the economic and social assets of the neighborhoods they pass through. CSS principles have since been adopted as guidelines for highway design in federal legislation. And in 2003, the Federal Highway Administration announced that under one of its three Vital Few Objectives (Environmental Stewardship and Streamlining) they set the target of achieving CSS integration within all state Departments of Transportations by September of 2007. The recent pushes for advancing transportation planning has led to the development of a professional certification program, the Professional Transportation Planner, to be launched in 2007.

Kota adalah tempat kita tinggal. Kota menyediakan berbagai kebutuhan kita: sandang, pangan, dan papan. Kota sebagai sebuah fenomena ”urban” memberikan kita lingkungan sosial budaya dan ekonomi yang sangat menentukan preferensi dan perilaku kita. Saya lebih suka menyebut permukiman kota sebagai keseluruhan yang meliputi kota sebagai tempat tinggal dengan lingkungan sosial ekonomi dan budaya yang mempengaruhi.

 

Planner (sebenarnya saya tidak begitu suka mendefinisikan diri saya dengan kata itu saat ini), kota seringkali dianggap hanya sebagai hanya sebuah ”kota”. Makna ini tidak lebih luas dari yang saya sampaikan sebagai sebuah urban. Di bangku kuliah kita berdiskusi tentang perencanaan kota atau city planning, bukan urban planning. Saya melihat ada dua kecenderungan yang dibawa oleh perbedaan pemahaman antara kedua istilah tersebut. Pertama, city planning melihat kota secara analitis, dibagi menurut komponen-komponennya: fisik geografis, tata guna lahan, sosial ekonomi, sosial budaya, dan kelembagaan. Sementara itu, urban planning memiliki makna yang dalam yang diamati secara empiris, seperti pola kehidupan masyarakat, protes sosial, organisasi, dan pemerintahan.

 

Ketika kita menerjemahkan perencanaan kota sebagai city planning, cara pandang perencana menjadi bersifat mekanis dan analitis. Justru yang berlangsung saat ini adalah hal yang sebutkan tersebut. Mau bukti. Rencana kota menjadi dokumen yang dibuat oleh ”para ahli” yang memetakan kebutuhan masyarakat atas lahan dan pengaturan ruang. Seluruhnya disusun dengan menggunakan pedoman yang dianggap sebagai kitab suci. Kerangka rencana dibuat menurut pedoman tersebut, tinggal isinya yang dilengkapi. Isi yang dilengkapi tersebut disusun dengan menggunakan metode perencanaan yang sifatnya analitis: formula yang generik diaplikasikan untuk memproyeksikan pertumbuhan dan jumlah penduduk. Siapa yang tidak kenal rumus-rumus ajaib, seperti: metode pertumbuhan linier, eksponsial, bunga berganda, maupun pertumbuhan dengan batasan sumber daya? Parameter kuantitas penduduk ini digunakan untuk mengestimasikan kebutuhan terhadap ruang maupun komponen-komponennya, seperti infrastruktur sampah, air bersih, sekolah, rumah sakit, dll.

 

Betapa susahnya dosen saya yang saya kagumi karena memiliki pendekatan berbeda dari kebanyakan pengajar yang lain pada mata kuliah yang sama untuk merubah cara kerja mahasiswa calon planner yang cenderung mekanistik dan analitis tersebut. Beliau senantiasa menekankan perencana harus ”turun gunung” dan merumuskan rencana melalui keterlibatan langsung dengan kegiatan-kegiatan masyarakat yang membutuhkan ruang. Hal ini tidak mudah diterima karena memakan waktu dan untuk beberapa orang tidak mudah untuk beradaptasi dengan lingkungan yang berbeda dari konteks budayanya.

 

Saya beranggapan bahwa dokumen rencana ruang kita dibuat tebal namun kurang sekali memiliki makna. Masih banyak pula konsep dan program ruang yang dibuat dengan metode yang kabur dan mereduksi kenyataan di lapangan. Parameter yang digunakan untuk menyusun program ruang masih lemah dan kurang lengkap, tidak hanya cukup dengan pertimbangan kuantitas penduduk seperti yang saya sampaikan di atas. Atas dasar prerogatif perencana maupun tim teknis proyek, seringkali rencana dibuat dengan rumusan yang hanya dapat ditemui di kepala mereka. Bahkan, kepentingan politis sepihak seringkali dengan mudah masuk.

 

Berbeda dengan standar, pedoman disusun dengan memberikan keleluasaan yang lebih besar kepada seseorang atau dalam hal perencana untuk menggali permasalahan di lapangan dan menyusun rekomendasi. Pedoman hanya memberikan kerangka, bukan menetapkan urutan langkah atau hasil-hasil yang akan dicapai. Hal ini berbeda dengan kegiatan di bidang konstruksi bangunan dan jalan yang objeknya memiliki parameter-parameter yang dapat dikendalikan dengan mudah. Sementara itu, objek dalam tata ruang bukanlah ruang per se, melainkan warga kota.

 

Dari pengamatan ini, saya menyarankan perencanaan kota sebagai city planning kuranglah tepat. Kita musti bergerak ke arah perencanaan kota sebagai urban planning yang menekankan kepada pengamatan mendalam atas fenomena keruangan. Dalam pengertian ini, keruangan didekati secara empiris, tidak a priori, dan mendefinisikan isu spesifik yang ditentukan di lapangan, bukan di kepala planner. Parameter disusun dengan kehati-hatiaan dan bersifat unik karena lokasi, konteks sosial, dan posisi strategis dibandingkan lokasi lainnya. Produk dari semua proses tersebut adalah rencana kota yang yang ditujukan untuk menciptakan sebuah ”place”, bukan sekedar ruang yang di dalam rencana direpresentasikan dengan legenda dan warna-warna.

 

Saya meyebutkan pola perencanaan saat ini adalah mekanistik. Sebagai analogi, di bidang teknologi jalan, dikenal kategori kajian: empirik, mekanistik, dan analitik. Sampai saat ini, saya memahami teknologi jalan di Indonesia masih diciptakan dan dikembangkan melalui metode empirik. Hal ini dikarenakan karena para insiyur jalan kita masih sangat berhari-hati untuk menentukan parameter-parameter untuk melangkah ke perencanaan atau perancangan yang sifatnya mekanis dan analitis. Bukan mereka tidak mampu, melainkan beragamnya kondisi lingkungan di Indonesia yang menyulitkan rumusan fungsi konstruksi yang melibatkan parameter yang teridentifikasi jelas yang sifatnya generik.

 

Kapan para perencana berhenti untuk berpikir mekanik – analitik dan mulai bergerak dari apa yg ada di sekitarnya?

 

 

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3 responses to “REGIONAL AND CITY DEVELOPMENT

  1. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the layout of your website?
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    with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two pictures.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

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